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      Barriers and facilitators to the implementation of a community-based, multidisciplinary, family-focused childhood weight management programme in Ireland: a qualitative study


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          To explore the barriers and facilitators experienced by those implementing a government-funded, community-based childhood weight management programme.


          Qualitative using semistructured interviews.


          Two geographical regions in the south and west of Ireland.


          29 national-level and local-level stakeholders responsible for implementing the programme, including professionals from dietetics, psychology, public health nursing, physiotherapy, health promotion and administration.


          Framework analysis was used to identify barriers and facilitators, which were mapped onto six levels of factors influencing implementation outlined by Grol and Wensing: the innovation, the individual professional, the patient, the social context, the organisational context and the external environment.


          Most barriers occurred at the level of the organisational context. For all stakeholders, barriers arose due to the multidisciplinary nature of the programme, including the lack of role clarity and added complexity of working in different locations. Health professionals’ low-perceived self-efficacy in approaching the subject of weight with parents and parental resistance to hearing about their child’s weight status were barriers to programme implementation at the individual professional and patient levels, respectively. The main facilitators of implementation, occurring at the level of the health professional, included stakeholders’ recognition of the need for a weight management programme and personal interest in the area of childhood obesity. Having a local lead and supportive colleagues were further implementation drivers.


          This study highlights the complexities associated with implementing a multidisciplinary childhood weight management programme, particularly translating such a programme to a community setting. Our results suggest the assignment of clear roles and responsibilities, the provision of sufficient practical training and resources, and organisational support play pivotal roles in overcoming barriers to change. This evidence can be used to develop an implementation plan to support the translation of interventions into real-world settings.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Better reporting of interventions: template for intervention description and replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide.

          Without a complete published description of interventions, clinicians and patients cannot reliably implement interventions that are shown to be useful, and other researchers cannot replicate or build on research findings. The quality of description of interventions in publications, however, is remarkably poor. To improve the completeness of reporting, and ultimately the replicability, of interventions, an international group of experts and stakeholders developed the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist and guide. The process involved a literature review for relevant checklists and research, a Delphi survey of an international panel of experts to guide item selection, and a face to face panel meeting. The resultant 12 item TIDieR checklist (brief name, why, what (materials), what (procedure), who provided, how, where, when and how much, tailoring, modifications, how well (planned), how well (actual)) is an extension of the CONSORT 2010 statement (item 5) and the SPIRIT 2013 statement (item 11). While the emphasis of the checklist is on trials, the guidance is intended to apply across all evaluative study designs. This paper presents the TIDieR checklist and guide, with an explanation and elaboration for each item, and examples of good reporting. The TIDieR checklist and guide should improve the reporting of interventions and make it easier for authors to structure accounts of their interventions, reviewers and editors to assess the descriptions, and readers to use the information.
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            Management of child and adolescent obesity: attitudes, barriers, skills, and training needs among health care professionals.

            The primary aim of this study was to evaluate among health care professionals their attitudes, perceived barriers, perceived skill level, and training needs in the management of child and adolescent obesity. A national needs assessment consisting of a mailed questionnaire was conducted among a random sample of health care professionals. The survey was completed by 202 pediatricians, 293 pediatric nurse practitioners, and 444 registered dietitians. The majority of all respondents felt that childhood obesity was a condition that needs treatment (75%-93%), and affects chronic disease risk (76%-89%) and future quality of life (83%-93%). The most frequent barriers were lack of parent involvement, lack of patient motivation, and lack of support services. Registered dietitians were less likely to identify barriers to treatment compared with pediatricians or pediatric nurse practitioners. The most common areas of self-perceived low proficiency were in the use of behavioral management strategies, guidance in parenting techniques, and addressing family conflicts. All 3 groups expressed high interest in additional training on obesity management of children and adolescents, especially in the area of behavioral management strategies and parenting techniques. Those practitioners with >10 years of practice reported the greatest interest in training. Pediatric practitioners view child and adolescent obesity with concern and feel that intervention is important. However, several important barriers interfere with treatment efforts and will need to be addressed. There is also a need for increased training opportunities related to obesity prevention and treatment. The results of this study provide directions and priorities for training, education, and advocacy efforts.
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              Barriers and facilitators to initial and continued attendance at community‐based lifestyle programmes among families of overweight and obese children: a systematic review

              Summary The success of childhood weight management programmes relies on family engagement. While attendance offers many benefits including the support to make positive lifestyle changes, the majority of families referred to treatment decline. Moreover, for those who do attend, benefits are often compromised by high programme attrition. This systematic review investigated factors influencing attendance at community‐based lifestyle programmes among families of overweight or obese children. A narrative synthesis approach was used to allow for the inclusion of quantitative, qualitative and mixed‐method study designs. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Results suggest that parents provided the impetus for programme initiation, and this was driven largely by a concern for their child's psychological health and wellbeing. More often than not, children went along without any real reason or interest in attending. Over the course of the programme, however, children's positive social experiences such as having fun and making friends fostered the desire to continue. The stigma surrounding excess weight and the denial of the issue amongst some parents presented barriers to enrolment and warrant further study. This study provides practical recommendations to guide future policy makers, programme delivery teams and researchers in developing strategies to boost recruitment and minimise attrition.

                Author and article information

                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                28 August 2017
                : 7
                : 8
                [1 ]departmentDepartment of Epidemiology and Public Health , University College Cork , Cork, Munster, Ireland
                [2 ]HRB Clinical Research Facility, Mercy University Hospital , Cork, Ireland
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Sheena M McHugh; s.mchugh@ 123456ucc.ie
                © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100010414, Health Research Board;
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                implementation, barriers, facilitators, childhood, obesity, community


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