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      Vitamin D and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Bi-directional Mendelian Randomization Analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Vitamin D deficiency is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in many cross-sectional studies. However, the causality between them has not been established. We used bi-directional mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to explore the causal relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and NAFLD.

          Methods

          9182 participants were included from a survey in East China from 2014 to 2016. We calculated weighted genetic risk scores (GRS) for 25(OH)D concentration and NAFLD based on 25(OH)D-related and NAFLD-related single nucleotide polymorphisms. Presence of liver steatosis was assessed using ultrasound. Instrumental variable was used to measure the causal relationship between them.

          Results

          An SD increase in the 25(OH)D GRS was significantly associated with 25(OH)D (β 1.29, 95%CI − 1.54, − 1.04, P < 0.05) but not with NAFLD (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.92, 1.01). An SD increase in NAFLD GRS was also strongly associated with NAFLD (OR 1.09, 95%CI 1.04, 1.15, P < 0.05) but not with 25(OH)D (β − 0.15, 95%CI − 0.41, 0.10). Using an instrumental variable estimator, no associations were found for genetically instrumented 25(OH)D with NAFLD and for genetically instrumented NAFLD with 25(OH)D.

          Conclusion

          Our results support the conclusion that there is no causal association between vitamin D and NAFLD using a bi-directional MR approach in a Chinese population.

          Highlights

          • The causality between vitamin D and NAFLD was controversial in human beings.
          • Using mendelian randomization analysis, 25(OH)D and NAFLD are not causally associated.
          • Long-term vitamin D deficiency may not affect the development of NAFLD.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Global epidemiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease-Meta-analytic assessment of prevalence, incidence, and outcomes.

          Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major cause of liver disease worldwide. We estimated the global prevalence, incidence, progression, and outcomes of NAFLD and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). PubMed/MEDLINE were searched from 1989 to 2015 for terms involving epidemiology and progression of NAFLD. Exclusions included selected groups (studies that exclusively enrolled morbidly obese or diabetics or pediatric) and no data on alcohol consumption or other liver diseases. Incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), cirrhosis, overall mortality, and liver-related mortality were determined. NASH required histological diagnosis. All studies were reviewed by three independent investigators. Analysis was stratified by region, diagnostic technique, biopsy indication, and study population. We used random-effects models to provide point estimates (95% confidence interval [CI]) of prevalence, incidence, mortality and incidence rate ratios, and metaregression with subgroup analysis to account for heterogeneity. Of 729 studies, 86 were included with a sample size of 8,515,431 from 22 countries. Global prevalence of NAFLD is 25.24% (95% CI: 22.10-28.65) with highest prevalence in the Middle East and South America and lowest in Africa. Metabolic comorbidities associated with NAFLD included obesity (51.34%; 95% CI: 41.38-61.20), type 2 diabetes (22.51%; 95% CI: 17.92-27.89), hyperlipidemia (69.16%; 95% CI: 49.91-83.46%), hypertension (39.34%; 95% CI: 33.15-45.88), and metabolic syndrome (42.54%; 95% CI: 30.06-56.05). Fibrosis progression proportion, and mean annual rate of progression in NASH were 40.76% (95% CI: 34.69-47.13) and 0.09 (95% CI: 0.06-0.12). HCC incidence among NAFLD patients was 0.44 per 1,000 person-years (range, 0.29-0.66). Liver-specific mortality and overall mortality among NAFLD and NASH were 0.77 per 1,000 (range, 0.33-1.77) and 11.77 per 1,000 person-years (range, 7.10-19.53) and 15.44 per 1,000 (range, 11.72-20.34) and 25.56 per 1,000 person-years (range, 6.29-103.80). Incidence risk ratios for liver-specific and overall mortality for NAFLD were 1.94 (range, 1.28-2.92) and 1.05 (range, 0.70-1.56).
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            Prevalence and control of diabetes in Chinese adults.

            Noncommunicable chronic diseases have become the leading causes of mortality and disease burden worldwide. To investigate the prevalence of diabetes and glycemic control in the Chinese adult population. Using a complex, multistage, probability sampling design, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in a nationally representative sample of 98,658 Chinese adults in 2010. Plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were measured after at least a 10-hour overnight fast among all study participants, and a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test was conducted among participants without a self-reported history of diagnosed diabetes. Diabetes and prediabetes were defined according to the 2010 American Diabetes Association criteria; whereas, a hemoglobin A1c level of <7.0% was considered adequate glycemic control. The overall prevalence of diabetes was estimated to be 11.6% (95% CI, 11.3%-11.8%) in the Chinese adult population. The prevalence among men was 12.1% (95% CI, 11.7%-12.5%) and among women was 11.0% (95% CI, 10.7%-11.4%). The prevalence of previously diagnosed diabetes was estimated to be 3.5% (95% CI, 3.4%-3.6%) in the Chinese population: 3.6% (95% CI, 3.4%-3.8%) in men and 3.4% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.5%) in women. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 8.1% (95% CI, 7.9%-8.3%) in the Chinese population: 8.5% (95% CI, 8.2%-8.8%) in men and 7.7% (95% CI, 7.4%-8.0%) in women. In addition, the prevalence of prediabetes was estimated to be 50.1% (95% CI, 49.7%-50.6%) in Chinese adults: 52.1% (95% CI, 51.5%-52.7%) in men and 48.1% (95% CI, 47.6%-48.7%) in women. The prevalence of diabetes was higher in older age groups, in urban residents, and in persons living in economically developed regions. Among patients with diabetes, only 25.8% (95% CI, 24.9%-26.8%) received treatment for diabetes, and only 39.7% (95% CI, 37.6%-41.8%) of those treated had adequate glycemic control. The estimated prevalence of diabetes among a representative sample of Chinese adults was 11.6% and the prevalence of prediabetes was 50.1%. Projections based on sample weighting suggest this may represent up to 113.9 million Chinese adults with diabetes and 493.4 million with prediabetes. These findings indicate the importance of diabetes as a public health problem in China.
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              The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: practice Guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and the American Gastroenterological Association.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                EBioMedicine
                EBioMedicine
                EBioMedicine
                Elsevier
                2352-3964
                09 January 2018
                February 2018
                09 January 2018
                : 28
                : 187-193
                Affiliations
                Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author at: Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200011, China.Institute and Department of Endocrinology and MetabolismShanghai Ninth People's HospitalShanghai JiaoTong University School of MedicineShanghai200011China luyingli2008@ 123456126.com luyl1615@ 123456sh9hospital.org
                [1]

                Ningjian Wang, Chi Chen and Li Zhao contributed equally to this manuscript.

                Article
                S2352-3964(17)30508-X
                10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.12.027
                5835542
                29339098
                © 2018 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Research Paper

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