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      Evaluation of energy expenditure in forward and backward movements performed by soccer referees


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          The aim of this study was to measure the energy expenditure for locomotor activities usually performed by soccer referees during a match (walking, jogging, and running) under laboratory conditions, and to compare forward with backward movements. The sample was composed by 10 male soccer referees, age 29±7.8 years, body mass 77.5±6.2 kg, stature 1.78±0.07 m and professional experience of 7.33±4.92 years. Referees were evaluated on two separate occasions. On the first day, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max) was determined by a maximal treadmill test, and on the second day, the oxygen consumption was determined in different speeds of forward and backward movements. The mean VO 2max was 41.20±3.60 mL·kg -1·min -1 and the mean heart rate achieved in the last stage of the test was 190.5±7.9 bpm. When results of forward and backward movements were compared at 1.62 m/s (walking speed), we found significant differences in VO 2, in metabolic equivalents, and in kcal. However, the same parameters in forward and backward movements at jogging velocities (2.46 m/s) were not significantly different, showing that these motor activities have similar intensity. Backward movements at velocities equivalent to walking and jogging are moderate-intensity activities, with energy expenditure less than 9 kcal. Energy expenditure was overestimated by at least 35% when calculated by mathematical equations. In summary, we observed that backward movements are not high-intensity activities as has been commonly reported, and when calculated using equations available in the literature, energy expenditure was overestimated compared to the values obtained by indirect calorimetry.

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          Activity profile of competition soccer.

          In order to study the movement pattern of soccer players, 14 top-level players were filmed during several competitive matches. In addition, the relationship between the observed activity during match play and blood lactate values was examined. The mean distance covered during competitive matches was 10.80 km, and the average individual difference between matches was 0.92 km, with no difference in regard to high intensity activities. Midfielders covered a 10% longer (p less than 0.05) distance (11.4 km) than defenders and forwards, with no difference concerning high intensity running. There was a significant correlation (r = 0.61, p less than 0.05) between the amount of high intensity running during the match and lactate concentration in the blood. The results suggest that high intensity running can be used for making comparisons in soccer and that the interpretation of blood lactate in soccer is limited to giving an indication of the type of activity that has been carried out a few minutes before sampling.
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            Physiological demands of top-class soccer refereeing in relation to physical capacity: effect of intense intermittent exercise training.

            To examine the activity profile and physiological demands of top-class soccer refereeing, we performed computerized time-motion analyses and measured the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of 27 referees during 43 competitive matches in the two top Danish leagues. To relate match performance to physical capacity and training, several physiological tests were performed before and after intermittent exercise training. Total distance covered was 10.07+/-0.13 km (mean +/- s(x)), of which 1.67+/-0.08 km was high-intensity running. High-intensity running and backwards running decreased (P < 0.05) in the second half. Mean heart rate was 162+/-2 beats min(-1) (85+/-1% of maximal heart rate) and the mean blood lactate concentration was 4.9+/-0.3 (range 1.7-14.0) mmol x l(-1). The amount of high-intensity running during a match was related to the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (r2 = 0.57; P<0.05) and the 12 min run (r2 = 0.21; P<0.05). After intermittent training (n = 8), distance covered during high-intensity running was greater (2.06+/-0.13 vs 1.69+/-0.08 km; P< 0.05) and mean heart rate was lower (159+/-1 vs 164+/-2 beats x min(-1); P< 0.05) than before training. The results of the present study demonstrate that: (1) top-class soccer referees have significant aerobic energy expenditure throughout a game and episodes of considerable anaerobic energy turnover; (2) the ability to perform high-intensity running is reduced towards the end of matches; (3) the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test can be used to evaluate referees' match performance; and (4) intense intermittent exercise training improves referees' performance capacity during a game.
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              Physical and perceptual-cognitive demands of top-class refereeing in association football.

              The aim of this study was to examine the physical and perceptual-cognitive demands imposed on UEFA top-class referees and assistant referees during the final round of the Euro 2000 Championship. To investigate the physical workload, the heart rates during matches were monitored by short-range radio telemetry and translated to different workloads expressed as a percentage of maximal heart rate. For measurement of the perceptual-cognitive workload, video-recordings of games were used to obtain the average number of observable decisions taken by a referee. On average, referees and assistant referees performed the matches at 85 +/- 5% and 77 +/- 7% of their maximal heart rate, respectively. Over the 31 games, the mean number of observable decisions was 137 (range 104-162), 64% of which were based on communication with the assistant referees and/or the fourth official. To optimize the physical preparation of top-class match officials, the results of this study support the application of intensive and intermittent training sessions, which should place priority on high-intensity aerobic stimuli. In addition, video training is discussed as an additional method for improving match officials' decision making.

                Author and article information

                Braz J Med Biol Res
                Braz. J. Med. Biol. Res
                Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
                Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
                12 April 2016
                : 49
                : 5
                : e5061
                Departamento de Fisiologia, Setor de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, PR, Brasil
                Author notes
                Correspondence: R. Fernandez: ricfer@ 123456ufpr.br

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 28 July 2015
                : 18 December 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 34, Pages: 7
                Clinical Investigation

                referee,football (soccer),energy expenditure,maximal oxygen uptake (vo2max)


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