2
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Babesia microtiBorrelia burgdorferi Coinfection

      * , *

      Pathogens

      MDPI

      Babesia, Borrelia, Babesiosis, Lyme disease, coinfection, tick-borne pathogens

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The incidence and geographic distribution of human babesiosis is growing in the U.S. Its major causative agent is the protozoan parasite, Babesia microti. B. microti is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of Ixodes scapularis ticks, which are vectors for a number of other pathogens. Other routes of B. microti transmission are blood transfusion and in rare cases of mother-to-foetus transmission, through the placenta. This review discusses the current literature on mammalian coinfection with B. microti and Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent Lyme disease.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 48

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Human babesiosis.

            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Atovaquone and azithromycin for the treatment of babesiosis.

            Babesiosis is a tick-borne, malaria-like illness known to be enzootic in southern New England. A course of clindamycin and quinine is the standard treatment, but this regimen frequently causes adverse reactions and occasionally fails. A promising alternative treatment is atovaquone plus azithromycin. We conducted a prospective, nonblinded, randomized trial of the two regimens in 58 subjects with non-life-threatening babesiosis on Nantucket, on Block Island, and in southern Connecticut. The subjects were assigned to receive either atovaquone (750 mg every 12 hours) and azithromycin (500 mg on day 1 and 250 mg per day thereafter) for seven days (40 subjects) or clindamycin (600 mg every 8 hours) and quinine (650 mg every 8 hours) for seven days (18 subjects). Adverse effects were reported by 15 percent of the subjects who received atovaquone and azithromycin, as compared with 72 percent of those who received clindamycin and quinine (P<0.001). The most common adverse effects with atovaquone and azithromycin were diarrhea and rash (each in 8 percent of the subjects); with clindamycin and quinine the most common adverse effects were tinnitus (39 percent), diarrhea (33 percent), and decreased hearing (28 percent). Symptoms had resolved three months after the start of therapy in 65 percent of those who received atovaquone and azithromycin and 73 percent of those who received clindamycin and quinine (P=0.66), and after six months no patient in either group had symptoms. Three months after the completion of the assigned regimen, no parasites could be seen on microscopy, and no Babesia microti DNA was detected in the blood of any subject. For the treatment of babesiosis, a regimen of atovaquone and azithromycin is as effective as a regimen of clindamycin and quinine and is associated with fewer adverse reactions.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Coinfection by Ixodes Tick-Borne Pathogens: Ecological, Epidemiological, and Clinical Consequences.

               Maria A. Diuk-Wasser,  Edouard Vannier,  Peter Krause (corresponding) (2016)
              Ixodes ticks maintain a large and diverse array of human pathogens in the enzootic cycle, including Borrelia burgdorferi and Babesia microti. Despite the poor ecological fitness of B. microti, babesiosis has recently emerged in areas endemic for Lyme disease. Studies in ticks, reservoir hosts, and humans indicate that coinfection with B. burgdorferi and B. microti is common, promotes transmission and emergence of B. microti in the enzootic cycle, and causes greater disease severity and duration in humans. These interdisciplinary studies may serve as a paradigm for the study of other vector-borne coinfections. Identifying ecological drivers of pathogen emergence and host factors that fuel disease severity in coinfected individuals will help guide the design of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Pathogens
                Pathogens
                pathogens
                Pathogens
                MDPI
                2076-0817
                31 July 2019
                September 2019
                : 8
                : 3
                Affiliations
                Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
                Author notes
                Article
                pathogens-08-00117
                10.3390/pathogens8030117
                6789475
                31370180
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article