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      Thermal Ecology, Environments, Communities, and Global Change: Energy Intake and Expenditure in Endotherms

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      Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics

      Annual Reviews

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          Nonlethal Effects in the Ecology of Predator-Prey Interactions

           Steven Lima (1998)
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            Coupled dynamics of body mass and population growth in response to environmental change.

            Environmental change has altered the phenology, morphological traits and population dynamics of many species. However, the links underlying these joint responses remain largely unknown owing to a paucity of long-term data and the lack of an appropriate analytical framework. Here we investigate the link between phenotypic and demographic responses to environmental change using a new methodology and a long-term (1976-2008) data set from a hibernating mammal (the yellow-bellied marmot) inhabiting a dynamic subalpine habitat. We demonstrate how earlier emergence from hibernation and earlier weaning of young has led to a longer growing season and larger body masses before hibernation. The resulting shift in both the phenotype and the relationship between phenotype and fitness components led to a decline in adult mortality, which in turn triggered an abrupt increase in population size in recent years. Direct and trait-mediated effects of environmental change made comparable contributions to the observed marked increase in population growth. Our results help explain how a shift in phenology can cause simultaneous phenotypic and demographic changes, and highlight the need for a theory integrating ecological and evolutionary dynamics in stochastic environments.
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              Partitioning of Time as an Ecological Resource

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics
                Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst.
                Annual Reviews
                1543-592X
                1545-2069
                November 23 2013
                November 23 2013
                : 44
                : 1
                : 461-480
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-110512-135917
                © 2013

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