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      Potential therapeutic effects of Cordyceps cicadae and Paecilomyces cicadae on adenine-induced chronic renal failure in rats and their phytochemical analysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Natural Cordyceps cicadae ( C. cicadae) has been utilized extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic renal diseases, heart palpitations, infantile convulsions, and dizziness. However, given its slow growth and immoderate exploitation, C. cicadae resources have been severely depleted. By contrast, Paecilomyces cicadae ( P. cicadae), as the anamorph stage of C. cicadae, is easy to cultivate, and this kind of cultivated P. cicadae has good and controllable quality.

          Purpose

          This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of C. cicadae and P. cicadae on adenine-induced chronic renal failure (CRF) rats. In accordance with the aforementioned studies, our work subsequently analyzed the intrinsic relationships between the efficacy and pharmacodynamic substances of C. cicadae and P. cicadae to conclude whether or not P. cicadae could be used as an alternative to C. cicadae in treating CRF.

          Methods

          Rats were administered with C. cicadae (1.0 g/kg) or P. cicadae (1.0 g/kg) by gavage for 4 weeks. Furthermore, we applied Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and ultraviolet spectrophotometry to comprehensively detect and analyze the chemical constituent differences from ten batches each of C. cicadae and P. cicadae.

          Results

          This study revealed that both C. cicadae and P. cicadae exerted obvious therapeutic effects on CRF and were more consistent with their chemical compositions.

          Conclusion

          P. cicadae can be used as an alternative to C. cicadae for treating CRF to cater to market demands.

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          Most cited references 44

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          A polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps sinensis, a traditional Chinese medicine, protects PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury.

           Pan P. Li,  Z. Song,  J. Zhao (2003)
          Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, possesses activities in anti-tumour, anti-oxidation and stimulating the immune system; however, the identity of active component(s) is not determined. By using anti-oxidation activity-guided fractionation, a polysaccharide of molecular weight approximately 210 kDa was isolated from cultured Cordyceps mycelia by ion-exchange and sizing chromatography. The isolated polysaccharide, having strong anti-oxidation activity, contains glucose, mannose and galactose in a ratio of 1 : 0.6 : 0.75. The pre-treatment of isolated polysaccharide on the cultured rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells shows strong protective effect against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced insult. Treatment of the cells with the isolated polysaccharide at 100 microg/ml prior to H(2)O(2) exposure significantly elevated the survival of PC12 cells in culture by over 60%. In parallel, the H(2)O(2)-induced production of malondialdehyde in cultured cells was markedly reduced by the polysaccharide treatment. Moreover, the pre-treatment of the isolated polysaccharide significantly attenuated the changes of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in H(2)O(2)-treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. This is the first report in identifying a polysaccharide from Cordyceps, which protects against the free radical-induced neuronal cell toxicity.
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            Herbs or natural substances as complementary therapies for chronic kidney disease: ideas for future studies.

            Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasingly common condition with limited treatment options that is placing a major financial and emotional burden on the community. The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMS) has increased many-fold over the past decade. Although several compelling studies show renal toxicities and an adverse outcome from use of some CAMS, there is also emerging evidence in the literature that some may be renoprotective. Many nephrologists are unaware of these potential therapeutic benefits in treating CKD, or they are reluctant to consider them in research trials for fear of adverse effects (including nephrotoxicity) or deleterious interaction with co-prescribed, conventional medicines. The increased use of self-prescribed CAMS by their patients suggests that practitioners and researchers should keep abreast of the current information on these agents. A primary goal of this article was to review the available scientific evidence for the use of herbs or natural substances as a complementary treatment for patients with CKD. A further goal was to report the literature on herbs that have been reported to cause kidney failure.
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              Fast simultaneous determination of 14 nucleosides and nucleobases in cultured Cordyceps using ultra-performance liquid chromatography.

               J. Guan,  S. P. Li,  F Q Yang (2007)
              Determination of nucleosides and their metabolic compounds is important for physiological and pharmacological studies. Herein, a rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 14 nucleosides and nucleobases, namely adenine, adenosine, cytosine, cytidine, uracil, uridine, guanine, guanosine, hypoxanthin, inosine, thymine, thymidine, 2'-deoxyuridine and cordycepin. The separation was performed on Waters Acquity UPLC system with Acquity UPLC BEH C(18) column and gradient elution of 0.5mM acetic acid and acetonitrile in 5min. The correlation coefficients of 14 analytes were high (R(2)>0.9995) within the test ranges. The LOD and LOQ were lower to 11.9 and 47.0ng/ml with 1mul of injection volume, respectively. The overall R.S.D. for intra- and inter-day of 14 analytes were less than 1.8%. The developed method was applied for the analysis of nucleosides and nucleobases in cultured Cordyceps, which also could be used for the fast determination of the analytes in pharmaceutical products and biological fluids.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2019
                19 December 2018
                : 13
                : 103-117
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Experiment Center for Teaching and Learning, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China, annabel_cn@ 123456163.com
                [2 ]Zhejiang BioAsia Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Pinghu, Zhejiang, China, wyq@ 123456bioasia.com.cn
                [3 ]Shuguang Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China
                [4 ]Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Bing Wang, Experiment Center for Teaching and Learning, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai 201203, China, Email annabel_cn@ 123456163.com
                Yuqin Wang, Zhejiang BioAsia Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 1938 Xinqun Road, Economic Development Zone, Pinghu, Zhejiang 314200, China, Email wyq@ 123456bioasia.com.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-13-103
                10.2147/DDDT.S180543
                6304081
                © 2019 Li et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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