12
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found
      Is Open Access

      Non-invasive reproductive and stress endocrinology in amphibian conservation physiology

      Conservation Physiology
      Oxford University Press
      amphibians, conservation physiology, ecological applications, non-invasive endocrinology, reproduction, stress

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          This review focuses on non-invasive endocrinology, which is a key component of amphibian conservation physiology. It enables rapid assessment of reproductive and stress hormones in free-living and captive populations. It also provides a direct physiological measure of population sensitivity to extreme environments and their sub-lethal impacts on reproduction, health and survival.

          Related collections

          Most cited references73

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Synergies among extinction drivers under global change.

          If habitat destruction or overexploitation of populations is severe, species loss can occur directly and abruptly. Yet the final descent to extinction is often driven by synergistic processes (amplifying feedbacks) that can be disconnected from the original cause of decline. We review recent observational, experimental and meta-analytic work which together show that owing to interacting and self-reinforcing processes, estimates of extinction risk for most species are more severe than previously recognised. As such, conservation actions which only target single-threat drivers risk being inadequate because of the cascading effects caused by unmanaged synergies. Future work should focus on how climate change will interact with and accelerate ongoing threats to biodiversity, such as habitat degradation, overexploitation and invasive species.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Stress and the individual. Mechanisms leading to disease.

            This article presents a new formulation of the relationship between stress and the processes leading to disease. It emphasizes the hidden cost of chronic stress to the body over long time periods, which act as a predisposing factor for the effects of acute, stressful life events. It also presents a model showing how individual differences in the susceptibility to stress are tied to individual behavioral responses to environmental challenges that are coupled to physiologic and pathophysiologic responses. Published original articles from human and animal studies and selected reviews. Literature was surveyed using MEDLINE. Independent extraction and cross-referencing by us. Stress is frequently seen as a significant contributor to disease, and clinical evidence is mounting for specific effects of stress on immune and cardiovascular systems. Yet, until recently, aspects of stress that precipitate disease have been obscure. The concept of homeostasis has failed to help us understand the hidden toll of chronic stress on the body. Rather than maintaining constancy, the physiologic systems within the body fluctuate to meet demands from external forces, a state termed allostasis. In this article, we extend the concept of allostasis over the dimension of time and we define allostatic load as the cost of chronic exposure to fluctuating or heightened neural or neuroendocrine response resulting from repeated or chronic environmental challenge that an individual reacts to as being particularly stressful. This new formulation emphasizes the cascading relationships, beginning early in life, between environmental factors and genetic predispositions that lead to large individual differences in susceptibility to stress and, in some cases, to disease. There are now empirical studies based on this formulation, as well as new insights into mechanisms involving specific changes in neural, neuroendocrine, and immune systems. The practical implications of this formulation for clinical practice and further research are discussed.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Conservation physiology.

              Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is important to understand the physiological responses of organisms to their changed environment. New physiological techniques can enable a rapid assessment of the causes of conservation problems and the consequences of conservation actions.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                27293595
                4806611
                10.1093/conphys/cot011
                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

                amphibians,conservation physiology,ecological applications,non-invasive endocrinology,reproduction,stress

                Comments

                Comment on this article