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      Defect Engineering toward Atomic Co–N x –C in Hierarchical Graphene for Rechargeable Flexible Solid Zn‐Air Batteries

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1
      Advanced Materials
      Wiley

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          Recent advances in zinc-air batteries.

          Zinc-air is a century-old battery technology but has attracted revived interest recently. With larger storage capacity at a fraction of the cost compared to lithium-ion, zinc-air batteries clearly represent one of the most viable future options to powering electric vehicles. However, some technical problems associated with them have yet to be resolved. In this review, we present the fundamentals, challenges and latest exciting advances related to zinc-air research. Detailed discussion will be organized around the individual components of the system - from zinc electrodes, electrolytes, and separators to air electrodes and oxygen electrocatalysts in sequential order for both primary and electrically/mechanically rechargeable types. The detrimental effect of CO2 on battery performance is also emphasized, and possible solutions summarized. Finally, other metal-air batteries are briefly overviewed and compared in favor of zinc-air.
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            Metal-Air Batteries with High Energy Density: Li-Air versus Zn-Air

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              Defect Chemistry of Nonprecious-Metal Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reactions.

              Oxygen electrocatalysis, including the oxygen-reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen-evolution reaction (OER), is a critical process for metal-air batteries. Therefore, the development of electrocatalysts for the OER and the ORR is of essential importance. Indeed, various advanced electrocatalysts have been designed for the ORR or the OER; however, the origin of the advanced activity of oxygen electrocatalysts is still somewhat controversial. The enhanced activity is usually attributed to the high surface areas, the unique facet structures, the enhanced conductivities, or even to unclear synergistic effects, but the importance of the defects, especially the intrinsic defects, is often neglected. More recently, the important role of defects in oxygen electrocatalysis has been demonstrated by several groups. To make the defect effect clearer, the recent development of this concept is reviewed here and a novel principle for the design of oxygen electrocatalysts is proposed. An overview of the defects in carbon-based, metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR and various defects in metal oxides/selenides for OER is also provided. The types of defects and controllable strategies to generate defects in electrocatalysts are presented, along with techniques to identify the defects. The defect-activity relationship is also explored by theoretical methods.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Advanced Materials
                Adv. Mater.
                Wiley
                0935-9648
                1521-4095
                July 28 2017
                October 2017
                August 07 2017
                October 2017
                : 29
                : 37
                : 1703185
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and TechnologyDepartment of Chemical EngineeringTsinghua University Beijing 100084 P. R. China
                Article
                10.1002/adma.201703185
                c02921de-3664-4166-a86f-be80c6bc8994
                © 2017

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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