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      Controlled release of TGF-beta 1 from RADA self-assembling peptide hydrogel scaffolds

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          Abstract

          Bioactive mediators, cytokines, and chemokines have an important role in regulating and optimizing the synergistic action of materials, cells, and cellular microenvironments for tissue engineering. RADA self-assembling peptide hydrogels have been proved to have an excellent ability to promote cell proliferation, wound healing, tissue repair, and drug delivery. Here, we report that D-RADA16 and L-RADA16-RGD self-assembling peptides can form stable second structure and hydrogel scaffolds, affording the slow release of growth factor (transforming growth factor cytokine-beta 1 [TGF-beta 1]). In vitro tests demonstrated that the plateau release amount can be obtained till 72 hours. Moreover, L-RADA16, D-RADA16, and L-RADA16-RGD self-assembling peptide hydrogels containing TGF-beta 1 were used for 3D cell culture of bone mesenchymal stem cells of rats for 2 weeks. The results revealed that these three RADA16 peptide hydrogels had a significantly favorable influence on proliferation of bone mesenchymal stem cells and hold some promise in slow and sustained release of growth factor.

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          Most cited references 31

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          TGF-β and BMP Signaling in Osteoblast Differentiation and Bone Formation

          Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling is involved in a vast majority of cellular processes and is fundamentally important throughout life. TGF-β/BMPs have widely recognized roles in bone formation during mammalian development and exhibit versatile regulatory functions in the body. Signaling transduction by TGF-β/BMPs is specifically through both canonical Smad-dependent pathways (TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors and Smads) and non-canonical Smad-independent signaling pathway (e.g. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, MAPK). Following TGF-β/BMP induction, both the Smad and p38 MAPK pathways converge at the Runx2 gene to control mesenchymal precursor cell differentiation. The coordinated activity of Runx2 and TGF-β/BMP-activated Smads is critical for formation of the skeleton. Recent advances in molecular and genetic studies using gene targeting in mice enable a better understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in bone and in the signaling networks underlying osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. This review summarizes the recent advances in our understanding of TGF-β/BMP signaling in bone from studies of genetic mouse models and human diseases caused by the disruption of TGF-β/BMP signaling. This review also highlights the different modes of cross-talk between TGF-β/BMP signaling and the signaling pathways of MAPK, Wnt, Hedgehog, Notch, and FGF in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation.
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            Controlled release of functional proteins through designer self-assembling peptide nanofiber hydrogel scaffold.

            The release kinetics for a variety of proteins of a wide range of molecular mass, hydrodynamic radii, and isoelectric points through a nanofiber hydrogel scaffold consisting of designer self-assembling peptides were studied by using single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). In contrast to classical diffusion experiments, the single-molecule approach allowed for the direct determination of diffusion coefficients for lysozyme, trypsin inhibitor, BSA, and IgG both inside the hydrogel and after being released into the solution. The results of the FCS analyses and the calculated pristine in-gel diffusion coefficients were compared with the values obtained from the Stokes-Einstein equation, Fickian diffusion models, and the literature. The release kinetics suggested that protein diffusion through nanofiber hydrogels depended primarily on the size of the protein. Protein diffusivities decreased, with increasing hydrogel nanofiber density providing a means of controlling the release kinetics. Secondary and tertiary structure analyses and biological assays of the released proteins showed that encapsulation and release did not affect the protein conformation and functionality. Our results show that this biocompatible and injectable designer self-assembling peptide hydrogel system may be useful as a carrier for therapeutic proteins for sustained release applications.
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              Cell encapsulation using biopolymer gels for regenerative medicine.

               L Grover,  N Hunt (2010)
              There has been a consistent increase in the mean life expectancy of the population of the developed world over the past century. Healthy life expectancy, however, has not increased concurrently. As a result we are living a larger proportion of our lives in poor health and there is a growing demand for the replacement of diseased and damaged tissues. While traditionally tissue grafts have functioned well for this purpose, the demand for tissue grafts now exceeds the supply. For this reason, research in regenerative medicine is rapidly expanding to cope with this new demand. There is now a trend towards supplying cells with a material in order to expedite the tissue healing process. Hydrogel encapsulation provides cells with a three dimensional environment similar to that experienced in vivo and therefore may allow the maintenance of normal cellular function in order to produce tissues similar to those found in the body. In this review we discuss biopolymeric gels that have been used for the encapsulation of mammalian cells for tissue engineering applications as well as a brief overview of cell encapsulation for therapeutic protein production. This review focuses on agarose, alginate, collagen, fibrin, hyaluronic acid and gelatin since they are widely used for cell encapsulation. The literature on the regeneration of cartilage, bone, ligament, tendon, skin, blood vessels and neural tissues using these materials has been summarised.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                22 September 2016
                : 10
                : 3043-3051
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing
                [2 ]Department of Orthopedics, Dujiangyan Medical Center, Dujiangyan, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dianming Jiang, Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, No 1 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Yuzhong District, Chongqing 400016, People’s Republic of China, Tel/fax +86 23 8901 1212, Email jdm571026@ 123456vip.163.com
                Article
                dddt-10-3043
                10.2147/DDDT.S109545
                5036568
                © 2016 Zhou et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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