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      Catalysis and photocatalysis by metal organic frameworks

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          This review aims to provide different strategies employed to use MOFs as solid catalysts and photocatalysts in organic transformations.


          Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous crystalline materials that feature a series of unique properties, such as large surface area and porosity, high content of transition metals, and possibility to be designed and modified after synthesis, that make these solids especially suitable as heterogeneous catalysts. The active sites can be coordinatively unsaturated metal ions, substituents at the organic linkers or guest species located inside the pores. The defects on the structure also create these open sites. The present review summarizes the current state of the art in the use of MOFs as solid catalysts according to the type of site, making special emphasis on the more recent strategies to increase the population of these active sites and tuning their activity, either by adapting the synthesis conditions or by post-synthetic modification. This review highlights those reports illustrating the synergy derived from the presence of more than one of these types of sites, leading to activation of a substrate by more than one site or to the simultaneous activation of different substrates by complementary sites. This synergy is frequently the main reason for the higher catalytic activity of MOFs compared to homogeneous catalysts or other alternative solid materials. Besides dark reactions, this review also summarizes the use of MOFs as photocatalysts emphasizing the uniqueness of these materials regarding adaptation of the linkers as light absorbers and metal exchange at the nodes to enhance photoinduced electron transfer, in comparison with conventional inorganic photocatalysts. This versatility and flexibility that is offered by MOFs to optimize their visible light photocatalytic activity explains the current interest in exploiting these materials for novel photocatalytic reactions, including hydrogen evolution and photocatalytic CO 2 reduction.

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          Most cited references 243

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          Functional Porous Coordination Polymers

          The chemistry of the coordination polymers has in recent years advanced extensively, affording various architectures, which are constructed from a variety of molecular building blocks with different interactions between them. The next challenge is the chemical and physical functionalization of these architectures, through the porous properties of the frameworks. This review concentrates on three aspects of coordination polymers: 1). the use of crystal engineering to construct porous frameworks from connectors and linkers ("nanospace engineering"), 2). characterizing and cataloging the porous properties by functions for storage, exchange, separation, etc., and 3). the next generation of porous functions based on dynamic crystal transformations caused by guest molecules or physical stimuli. Our aim is to present the state of the art chemistry and physics of and in the micropores of porous coordination polymers.
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            Palladium(II)-catalyzed C-H activation/C-C cross-coupling reactions: versatility and practicality.

            In the past decade, palladium-catalyzed C-H activation/C-C bond-forming reactions have emerged as promising new catalytic transformations; however, development in this field is still at an early stage compared to the state of the art in cross-coupling reactions using aryl and alkyl halides. This Review begins with a brief introduction of four extensively investigated modes of catalysis for forming C-C bonds from C-H bonds: Pd(II)/Pd(0), Pd(II)/Pd(IV), Pd(0)/Pd(II)/Pd(IV), and Pd(0)/Pd(II) catalysis. A more detailed discussion is then directed towards the recent development of palladium(II)-catalyzed coupling of C-H bonds with organometallic reagents through a Pd(II)/Pd(0) catalytic cycle. Despite the progress made to date, improving the versatility and practicality of this new reaction remains a tremendous challenge.
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              Enantioselective catalysis with homochiral metal-organic frameworks.

              This tutorial review presents recent developments of homochiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in enantioselective catalysis. Following a brief introduction of the basic concepts and potential virtues of MOFs in catalysis, we summarize three distinct strategies that have been utilized to synthesize homochiral MOFs. Framework stability and accessibility of the open channels to reagents are then addressed. We finally survey recent successful examples of catalytically active homochiral MOFs based on three approaches, namely, homochiral MOFs with achiral catalytic sites, incorporation of asymmetric catalysts directly into the framework, and post-synthetic modification of homochiral MOFs. Although still in their infancy, homochiral MOFs have clearly demonstrated their utility in heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis, and a bright future is foreseen for the development of practically useful homochiral MOFs in the production of optically pure organic molecules.

                Author and article information

                Chemical Society Reviews
                Chem. Soc. Rev.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                November 12 2018
                : 47
                : 22
                : 8134-8172
                [1 ]School of Chemistry
                [2 ]Madurai Kamaraj University
                [3 ]Madurai-625 021
                [4 ]India
                [5 ]Research Institute of Photocatalysis
                [6 ]State Key Laboratory on Photocatalysis
                [7 ]Fuzhou University
                [8 ]Fuzhou 350002
                [9 ]People's Republic of China
                [10 ]Department of Chemistry and Instituto de Tecnología Química
                [11 ]Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia
                [12 ]Universitat Politecnica de Valencia
                [13 ]46022 Valencia
                [14 ]Spain
                © 2018


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