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      Rise of Raman spectroscopy in neurosurgery: a review

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          Abstract.

          Significance: Although the clinical potential for Raman spectroscopy (RS) has been anticipated for decades, it has only recently been used in neurosurgery. Still, few devices have succeeded in making their way into the operating room. With recent technological advancements, however, vibrational sensing is poised to be a revolutionary tool for neurosurgeons.

          Aim: We give a summary of neurosurgical workflows and key translational milestones of RS in clinical use and provide the optics and data science background required to implement such devices.

          Approach: We performed an extensive review of the literature, with a specific emphasis on research that aims to build Raman systems suited for a neurosurgical setting.

          Results: The main translatable interest in Raman sensing rests in its capacity to yield label-free molecular information from tissue intraoperatively. Systems that have proven usable in the clinical setting are ergonomic, have a short integration time, and can acquire high-quality signal even in suboptimal conditions. Moreover, because of the complex microenvironment of brain tissue, data analysis is now recognized as a critical step in achieving high performance Raman-based sensing.

          Conclusions: The next generation of Raman-based devices are making their way into operating rooms and their clinical translation requires close collaboration between physicians, engineers, and data scientists.

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            Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

            Label-free chemical contrast is highly desirable in biomedical imaging. Spontaneous Raman microscopy provides specific vibrational signatures of chemical bonds, but is often hindered by low sensitivity. Here we report a three-dimensional multiphoton vibrational imaging technique based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The sensitivity of SRS imaging is significantly greater than that of spontaneous Raman microscopy, which is achieved by implementing high-frequency (megahertz) phase-sensitive detection. SRS microscopy has a major advantage over previous coherent Raman techniques in that it offers background-free and readily interpretable chemical contrast. We show a variety of biomedical applications, such as differentiating distributions of omega-3 fatty acids and saturated lipids in living cells, imaging of brain and skin tissues based on intrinsic lipid contrast, and monitoring drug delivery through the epidermis.
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              The Collinearity Problem in Linear Regression. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) Approach to Generalized Inverses

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Biomed Opt
                J Biomed Opt
                JBOPFO
                JBO
                Journal of Biomedical Optics
                Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers
                1083-3668
                1560-2281
                1 May 2020
                May 2020
                1 May 2020
                : 25
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [a ]Université Laval , CERVO Brain Research Center, Québec, Canada
                [b ]Université Laval , Centre d’optique, Photonique et Lasers, Québec, Canada
                [c ]Polytechnique Montréal , Department of Engineering Physics, Montréal, Canada
                [d ]Centre de Recherche du Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal , Montréal, Canada
                [e ]Hôpital de l’Enfant-Jésus , Department of Neurosurgery, Québec, Canada
                [f ]McGill University , Montreal Neurological Institute-Hospital, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery , Montreal, Canada
                Author notes
                [* ]Address all correspondence to Frédéric Leblond, E-mail: frederic.leblond@ 123456polymtl.ca ; Daniel C. Côté, E-mail: dccote@ 123456cervo.ulaval.ca
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                JBO-200046VR 200046VR
                10.1117/1.JBO.25.5.050901
                7195442
                32358930
                © The Authors. Published by SPIE under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. Distribution or reproduction of this work in whole or in part requires full attribution of the original publication, including its DOI.
                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 9, References: 201, Pages: 36
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) https://doi.org/10.13039/501100000038
                Funded by: Collaborative Health Research Program (CIHR)
                Funded by: TransMedTech Institute
                Funded by: Fonds de recherche du Québec–Nature et technologies (FRQNT)
                Categories
                Review Papers
                Paper
                Custom metadata
                DePaoli et al.: Rise of Raman spectroscopy in neurosurgery: a review

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