1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      Overview of clinical studies in hemodiafiltration: What do we need now ?

      , , , ,

      Hemodialysis International

      Wiley

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Despite several technical advances in dialysis treatment modalities and a better patient care management including correction of anemia, suppression of secondary hyperparathyroidism, lipid and oxidative stress profiles improvement, the morbidity and the mortality of dialysis patients still remain still elevated. Recent prospective interventional trials in hemodialysis (HEMO study and 4D study) were not very conclusive in showing any significant improvement in dialysis patient outcomes. High-efficiency convective therapies, such as online hemodiafiltration (HDF), are claimed to be superior to conventional diffusive hemodialysis (HD) in improving the dialysis efficacy and in reducing intradialytic morbidity and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in dialysis patients. The aim of this report was, first, to review the evidence-based facts tending to prove the superiority of HDF vs. HD in terms of efficacy and tolerance, and, second, to analyze the needs to prove the clinical superiority of HDF in terms of reducing morbidity and all-cause mortality of dialysis patients. A systematic review of studies comparing HDF and HD has been performed in the microbiological safety of online production, the solute removal capacity of small and medium-size uremic toxins, and its implication in the reduction of the bioactive dialysis system vs. patient interaction. Major planned randomized international studies comparing HDF and HD in terms of morbidity and mortality have been reviewed. To conclude, it is thought that these long-term prospective randomized trials will clarify on a scientific evidence-based level the putative beneficial role of high-efficiency HDF modalities on dialysis patient outcomes.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 39

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Effects of high-flux hemodialysis on clinical outcomes: results of the HEMO study.

          Among the 1846 patients in the HEMO Study, chronic high-flux dialysis did not significantly affect the primary outcome of the all-cause mortality (ACM) rate or the main secondary composite outcomes, including the rates of first cardiac hospitalization or ACM, first infectious hospitalization or ACM, first 15% decrease in serum albumin levels or ACM, or all non-vascular access-related hospitalizations. The high-flux intervention, however, seemed to be associated with reduced risks of specific cardiac-related events. The relative risks (RR) for the high-flux arm, compared with the low-flux arm, were 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65 to 0.99] for cardiac death and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.00) for the composite of first cardiac hospitalization or cardiac death. Also, the effect of high-flux dialysis on ACM seemed to vary, depending on the duration of prior dialysis. This report presents secondary analyses to further explore the relationship between the flux intervention and the duration of dialysis with respect to various outcomes. The patients were stratified into a short-duration group and a long-duration group, on the basis of the mean duration of dialysis of 3.7 yr before randomization. In the subgroup that had been on dialysis for >3.7 yr, randomization to high-flux dialysis was associated with lower risks of ACM (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.86; P = 0.001), the composite of first albumin level decrease or ACM (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.91; P = 0.005), and cardiac deaths (RR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.92; P = 0.016), compared with low-flux dialysis. No significant differences were observed in outcomes related to infection for either duration subgroup, however, and the trends for beneficial effects of high-flux dialysis on ACM rates were considerably weakened when the years of dialysis during the follow-up phase were combined with the prestudy years of dialysis in the analysis. For the subgroup of patients with <3.7 yr of dialysis before the study, assignment to high-flux dialysis had no significant effect on any of the examined clinical outcomes. These data suggest that high-flux dialysis might have a beneficial effect on cardiac outcomes. Because these results are derived from multiple statistical comparisons, however, they must be interpreted with caution. The subgroup results that demonstrate that patients with different durations of dialysis are affected differently by high-flux dialysis are interesting and require further study for confirmation.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Convective and diffusive losses of vitamin C during haemodiafiltration session: a contributive factor to oxidative stress in haemodialysis patients.

            Enhanced oxidative stress in haemodialysis (HD) patients may be considered as a risk factor for accelerated atherosclerosis. Reduced antioxidant defences include impairment in enzyme activities and decreased plasma levels of hydrophilic vitamin C (vit C), and cellular levels of lipophilic vitamin E (vit E). We investigated plasma levels of vit C in 19 patients undergoing regular haemodiafiltration (HDF) (mean age 62+/-7 years) and in 1846 healthy elderly subjects (HS) (mean age 69+/-5 years). The contribution of convection and diffusion was determined using paired filtration dialysis (PFD), a modified HDF technique which physically separates convective from diffusive fluxes. Blood samples were collected before and after the HDF session; in addition at 60 min of HDF, samples were drawn from arterial lines (AL) and venous lines (VL), dialysate (D) and ultrafiltrate (UF). Blood levels of total vit C were determined using an HPLC fluorescence method. Markers of oxidative stress were also assessed in both populations as follows: levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by fluorometric assay, measurements of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were performed by spectrophotometric assay, and plasma vit E content was obtained by an HPLC procedure. A significant reduction in plasma vit C level was observed in HDF patients when compared with HS (1.6+/-1.4 microg/ml in HDF vs 6.6+/-3.7 microg/ml in HS; P<0.01). The HDF session was associated with a dramatic reduction in vit C levels (1.87+/-1.57 microg/ml before HDF and 0.98+/-0.68 microg/ml after HDF); at 60 min of HDF, concentrations were as follows: AL=1.35+/-1.27 microg/ml; VL=0.37+/-0.31 microg/ml, D=0.40+/-0.34 microg/ml, UF=1.24+/-1.18 microg/ml; corresponding to a diffusive flux of 271 microg/min and a convective flux of 126 microg/min. Total loss of vit C could be assessed at 66 mg/session (8--230 mg/session). According to this loss of vit C, presence of an oxidative stress was demonstrated in HD population as shown by a significant increase in MDA (1.66+/-0.27 microM in HD vs 0.89+/-0.25 microM in HS; P<0.01) and AOPP (77.5+/-29.3 microM in HD vs 23.5+/-13.2 microM in HS; P<0.01) levels, and a decrease in GSH-Px activity (259.2+/-106.3 U/l in HD vs 661.2+/-92.2 U/l in HS; P<0.01). No change in plasma vit E between both populations (30.7+/-9.1 microM in HD vs 35.3+/-7.34 microM in HS) was observed. These results suggest that HDF with highly permeable membranes is associated with a significant loss of vit C. Diffusive transport is responsible for two-thirds whereas convective phenomenon accounts for only one-third of this loss.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Change from conventional haemodiafiltration to on-line haemodiafiltration.

              On-line haemodiafiltration (HDF) is a technique which combines diffusion with elevated convection and uses pyrogen-free dialysate as a replacement fluid. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the difference between conventional HDF (1-3 l/h) and on-line HDF (6-12 l/h). The study included 37 patients, 25 males and 12 females. The mean age was 56.5 +/- 13 years and duration of dialysis was 62.7 +/- 49 months. Three patients dropped out for transplantation, three patients died and three failed to complete the study period. Initially all patients were on conventional HDF with high-flux membranes over the preceding 34 +/- 32 months. Treatment was performed with blood flow (QB) 402 +/- 41 ml/min, dialysis time (Td) 187 min, dialysate flow (QD) 654 +/- 126 ml/min and replacement fluid (Qi) 4.0 +/- 2 l/session. Patients were changed to on-line HDF with the same filtre and dialysis time, QD 679 +/- 38 ml/min (NS), QB 434 +/- 68 ml/min (P < 0.05) and post-dilutional replacement fluid 22.5 +/- 4.3 l/session (P < 0.001). We compared conventional HDF with on-line HDF over a period of 1 year. Dialysis adequacy was monitored according to standard clinical and biochemical criteria. Kinetic analysis of urea and beta2-micro-globulin (beta2m) was performed monthly. Tolerance was excellent and no pyrogenic reactions were observed. Pre-dialysis sodium increased 2 mEq/l during on-line HDF. Plasma potassium, pre- and post-dialysis bicarbonate, uric acid, phosphate, calcium, iPTH, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol and triglycerides remained stable. The mean plasma beta2m reduction ratio increased from 56.1 +/- 8.7% in conventional HDF to 71.1 +/- 9.1% in on-line HDF (P < 0.001). The pre-dialysis plasma beta2m decreased from 27.4 +/- 8.1 to 24.2 +/- 6.5 mg/l (P < 0.01). Mean Kt/V (Daugirdas 2nd generation) was 1.35 +/- 0.21 in conventional HDF compared with 1.56 +/- 0.29 in on-line HDF (P < 0.01), Kt/Vr (Kt/V taking into consideration post-dialysis urea rebound) 1.12 +/- 0.17 vs 1.26 +/- 0.20 (P < 0.01), BUN time average concentration (TAC) 44.4 +/- 9 vs 40.6 +/- 10 mg/dl (P < 0.05) and protein catabolic rate (PCR) 1.13 +/- 0.22 vs 1.13 +/- 0.24 g/kg (NS). There was a significant increase in haemoglobin (10.66 +/- 1.1 vs 11.4 +/- 1.5) and haematocrit (32.2 +/- 2.9 vs 34.0 +/- 4.4%), P < 0.05, during the on-line HDF period, which allowed a decrease in the erythropoietin doses (3861 +/- 2446 vs 3232 +/- 2492 UI/week), (P < 0.05). Better blood pressure control (MAP 103.8 +/- 15 vs 97.8 +/- 11 mmHg, P < 0.01) and a lower percentage of patients requiring antihypertensive drugs were also observed. The change from conventional HDF to on-line HDF results in increased convective removal and fluid replacement (18 l/session). During on-line HDF treatment, dialysis dose was increased for both small and large molecules with a decrease in uraemic toxicity level (TAC). On-line HDF provided a better correction of anaemia with lower dosages of erythropoietin. Finally, blood pressure was easily controlled.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Hemodialysis International
                Hemodialysis International
                Wiley
                1492-7535
                1542-4758
                January 2006
                January 2006
                : 10
                : s1
                : S5-S12
                Article
                10.1111/j.1542-4758.2006.01183.x
                16441870
                © 2006

                Comments

                Comment on this article