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      Speech perception in children with speech output disorders

      Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics

      Informa UK Limited

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          Most cited references 14

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          Speech listening specifically modulates the excitability of tongue muscles: a TMS study

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            A theoretical investigation of reference frames for the planning of speech movements.

            Does the speech motor control system use invariant vocal tract shape targets when producing vowels and semivowels? A 4-part theoretical treatment favoring models whose only invariant targets are regions in auditory perceptual space over models that posit invariant constriction targets is presented. Auditory target regions are hypothesized to arise during development as an emergent property of neural map formation in the auditory system. Furthermore, speech movements are planned as trajectories in auditory perceptual space. These trajectories are then mapped into articulator movements through a neural mapping that allows motor equivalent variability in constriction locations and degrees when needed. These hypotheses are illustrated using computer simulations of the DIVA model of speech acquisition and production. Finally, several difficult challenges to proponents of constriction theories based on this theoretical treatment are posed.
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              Modulation of motor excitability during speech perception: the role of Broca's area.

              Studies in both human and nonhuman primates indicate that motor and premotor cortical regions participate in auditory and visual perception of actions. Previous studies, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), showed that perceiving visual and auditory speech increased the excitability of the orofacial motor system during speech perception. Such studies, however, cannot tell us which brain regions mediate this effect. In this study, we used the technique of combining positron emission tomography with TMS to identify the brain regions that modulate the excitability of the motor system during speech perception. Our results show that during auditory speech perception, there is increased excitability of motor system underlying speech production and that this increase is significantly correlated with activity in the posterior part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). We propose that this area "primes" the motor system in response to heard speech even when no speech output is required and, as such, operates at the interface of perception and action.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
                Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
                Informa UK Limited
                0269-9206
                1464-5076
                July 09 2009
                January 2009
                July 09 2009
                January 2009
                : 23
                : 3
                : 222-239
                Article
                10.1080/02699200802399947
                © 2009

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