+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Homocysteine-Induced Endothelin-1 Release Is Dependent on Hyperglycaemia and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Bovine Aortic Endothelial Cells


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is a risk factor for coronary disease. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Hcy either alone or in high glucose conditions induces endothelin-1 (ET-1) synthesis via the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Methods: Bovine aortic endothelial cells were grown in high (25 mmol/l) and low (5 mmol/l) glucose medium. Results: In high glucose, Hcy caused a time-dependent increase in ET-1 release, which was greatest with 50 µmol/l Hcy at 24 h (p < 0.01). This effect was not seen in low glucose conditions. In high glucose and 50 µmol/l Hcy, ET-1 mRNA levels were maximal after 1 h (p < 0.05). Tissue factor mRNA levels were raised at 4 h (p < 0.05) and functional activity was raised at 6 h (p < 0.01). Intracellular ROS production was increased by 50 µmol/l Hcy after 24 h (p < 0.05) but only in high glucose. To investigate the role of mitochondrial metabolism in ROS production, cells were incubated with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (inhibitor of complex II) or carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation). Both compounds abolished the Hcy-induced increase in ROS production and ET-1 release. There was an alteration in intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels with Hcy treatment with more oxidised GSH present. Conclusion: The combined metabolic burden of Hcy and high glucose stimulates ET-1 synthesis in bovine aortic endothelial cells via a mechanism dependent on the production of mitochondrial ROS, but may not be generalisable to all types of endothelial cells.

          Related collections

          Most cited references29

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease.

          Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are a risk factor for coronary heart disease, but the prognostic value of homocysteine levels in patients with established coronary artery disease has not been defined. We prospectively investigated the relation between plasma total homocysteine levels and mortality among 587 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease. At the time of angiography in 1991 or 1992, risk factors for coronary disease, including homocysteine levels, were evaluated. The majority of the patients subsequently underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (318 patients) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (120 patients); the remaining 149 were treated medically. After a median follow-up of 4.6 years, 64 patients (10.9 percent) had died. We found a strong, graded relation between plasma homocysteine levels and overall mortality. After four years, 3.8 percent of patients with homocysteine levels below 9 micromol per liter had died, as compared with 24.7 percent of those with homocysteine levels of 15 micromol per liter or higher. Homocysteine levels were only weakly related to the extent of coronary artery disease but were strongly related to the history with respect to myocardial infarction, the left ventricular ejection fraction, and the serum creatinine level. The relation of homocysteine levels to mortality remained strong after adjustment for these and other potential confounders. In an analysis in which the patients with homocysteine levels below 9 micromol per liter were used as the reference group, the mortality ratios were 1.9 for patients with homocysteine levels of 9.0 to 14.9 micromol per liter, 2.8 for those with levels of 15.0 to 19.9 micromol per liter, and 4.5 for those with levels of 20.0 micromol per liter or higher (P for trend=0.02). When death due to cardiovascular disease (which occurred in 50 patients) was used as the end point in the analysis, the relation between homocysteine levels and mortality was slightly strengthened. Plasma total homocysteine levels are a strong predictor of mortality in patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Homocyst(e)ine decreases bioavailable nitric oxide by a mechanism involving glutathione peroxidase.

            Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is believed to injure endothelial cells in vivo through a number of mechanisms, including the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Earlier in vitro studies demonstrated that homocyst(e)ine (Hcy) decreases the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and that this decrease can be reversed by preventing the generation of hydrogen peroxide. Here we show that Hcy treatment of bovine aortic endothelial cells leads to a dose-dependent decrease in NOx (p = 0.001 by one-way analysis of variance) independent of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase activity or protein levels and nos3 transcription, suggesting that Hcy affects the bioavailability of NO, not its production. We hypothesized that, in addition to increasing the generation of H2O2, Hcy decreases the cell's ability to detoxify H2O2 by impairing intracellular antioxidant enzymes, specifically the intracellular isoform of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). To test this hypothesis, confluent bovine aortic endothelial cells were treated with a range of concentrations of Hcy, and intracellular GPx activity was determined. Compared with control cells, cells treated with Hcy showed a significant reduction in GPx activity (up to 81% at 250 microM Hcy). In parallel with the decrease in GPx activity, steady-state GPx mRNA levels were also significantly decreased compared with control levels after exposure to Hcy, which appeared not to be a consequence of message destabilization. These data suggest a novel mechanism by which Hcy, in addition to increasing the generation of hydrogen peroxide, may selectively impair the endothelial cell's ability to detoxify H2O2, thus rendering NO more susceptible to oxidative inactivation.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Endothelial cell injury due to copper-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide generation from homocysteine.

              We have examined whether the toxic effects of homocysteine on cultured endothelial cells could result from the formation and action of hydrogen peroxide. In initial experiments with a cell-free system, micromolar amounts of copper were found to catalyze an oxygen-dependent oxidation of homocysteine. The molar ratio of homocysteine oxidized to oxygen consumed was approximately 4.0, which suggests that oxygen was reduced to water. The addition of catalase, however, decreased oxygen consumption by nearly one-half, which suggests that H2O2 was formed during the reaction. Confirming this hypothesis, H2O2 formation was detected using the horseradish peroxidase-dependent oxidation of fluorescent scopoletin. Ceruloplasmin was also found to catalyze oxidation of homocysteine and generation of H2O2 in molar amounts equivalent to copper sulfate. Finally, homocysteine oxidation was catalyzed by normal human serum in a concentration-dependent manner. Using cultured human and bovine endothelial cells, we found that homocysteine plus copper could lyse the cells in a dose-dependent manner, an effect that was completely prevented by catalase. Homocystine plus copper was not toxic to the cells. Specific injury to endothelial cells was seen only after 4 h of incubation with homocysteine plus copper. Confirming the biochemical studies, ceruloplasmin was also found to be equivalent to Cu++ in its ability to cause injury to endothelial cells in the presence of homocysteine. Since elevated levels of homocysteine have been implicated in premature development of atherosclerosis, these findings may be relevant to the mechanism of some types of chronic vascular injury.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                February 2006
                16 February 2006
                : 43
                : 2
                : 175-183
                aDepartment of Experimental Therapeutics, William Harvey Research Institute, and bDepartment of Endocrinology, St. Bartholomew’s and Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK
                90947 J Vasc Res 2006;43:175–183
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                : 29 June 2005
                : 01 November 2005
                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 43, Pages: 9
                Research Paper

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Hyperglycaemia,Homocysteine,Endothelial cells,Endothelin-1,Reactive oxygen species


                Comment on this article