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      The pen is mightier than the keyboard: advantages of longhand over laptop note taking.

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          Abstract

          Taking notes on laptops rather than in longhand is increasingly common. Many researchers have suggested that laptop note taking is less effective than longhand note taking for learning. Prior studies have primarily focused on students' capacity for multitasking and distraction when using laptops. The present research suggests that even when laptops are used solely to take notes, they may still be impairing learning because their use results in shallower processing. In three studies, we found that students who took notes on laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than students who took notes longhand. We show that whereas taking more notes can be beneficial, laptop note takers' tendency to transcribe lectures verbatim rather than processing information and reframing it in their own words is detrimental to learning.

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          Most cited references 26

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          An automated version of the operation span task

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            Executive control of cognitive processes in task switching.

            In 4 experiments, participants alternated between different tasks or performed the same task repeatedly. The tasks for 2 of the experiments required responding to geometric objects in terms of alternative classification rules, and the tasks for the other 2 experiments required solving arithmetic problems in terms of alternative numerical operations. Performance was measured as a function of whether the tasks were familiar or unfamiliar, the rules were simple or complex, and visual cues were present or absent about which tasks should be performed. Task alternation yielded switching-time costs that increased with rule complexity but decreased with task cuing. These factor effects were additive, supporting a model of executive control that has goal-shifting and rule-activation stages for task switching. It appears that rule activation takes more time for switching from familiar to unfamiliar tasks than for switching in the opposite direction.
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              In-class laptop use and its effects on student learning

               Carrie Fried (2008)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychol Sci
                Psychological science
                1467-9280
                0956-7976
                Jun 2014
                : 25
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Princeton University pamuelle@princeton.edu.
                [2 ] University of California, Los Angeles.
                Article
                0956797614524581
                10.1177/0956797614524581
                24760141
                © The Author(s) 2014.

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