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      Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism: the clinical utility of etelcalcetide

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          Abstract

          Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT), a very frequent, severe, and worsening complication of chronic kidney disease, is characterized by high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), parathyroid gland hyperplasia, and disturbances in mineral metabolism. Clinically, SHPT shows renal osteodystrophy, vascular calcification, cardiovascular damage, and fatal outcome. Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is the main physiological regulator of PTH secretion; its activation by calcium rapidly inhibits PTH. Another important player in regulating mineral metabolism is vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is under the influence of vitamin D and influences the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate, PTH gene expression, and bone calcium mobilization. Serum phosphate levels influence fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) production, a phosphatonin that modulates serum phosphate reabsorption, PTH synthesis, and vitamin D production. Current therapeutic approaches consist of 1) phosphate intake control by diet or phosphate binders, 2) vitamin D by VDR activation, and 3) calcimimetic agents that activate CaSR. Recently, a new long-acting peptide (etelcalcetide) belonging to the calcimimetics class was approved for intravenous use in hemodialysis patients with SHPT. Etelcalcetide binds directly to CaSR, by a sulfide bond, inhibiting the production and secretion of PTH by parathyroid glands. After intravenous administration in rats, etelcalcetide is quickly distributed to the tissues and eliminated by kidneys, while in uremic animals the nonrenal excretion is only 1.2%. In hemodialysis patients, the treatment itself is the main route of elimination. Etelcalcetide in hemodialysis patients with SHPT was more effective than placebo and cinacalcet, with a PTH reduction of >30% in 76% of patients with etelcalcetide versus 10% with placebo. Particular attention was paid to the safety of the drug; the most common adverse event was asymptomatic blood calcium reduction, similar to cinacalcet, while gastrointestinal symptoms were less frequent. This promising new drug available for better control of SHPT will, together with drugs already in use, optimize the treatment to normalize the biochemical parameters.

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          Most cited references 82

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          Cinacalcet for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving hemodialysis.

          Treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism with vitamin D and calcium in patients receiving dialysis is often complicated by hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, which may contribute to cardiovascular disease and adverse clinical outcomes. Calcimimetics target the calcium-sensing receptor and lower parathyroid hormone levels without increasing calcium and phosphorus levels. We report the results of two identical randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials evaluating the safety and effectiveness of the calcimimetic agent cinacalcet hydrochloride. Patients who were receiving hemodialysis and who had inadequately controlled secondary hyperparathyroidism despite standard treatment were randomly assigned to receive cinacalcet (371 patients) or placebo (370 patients) for 26 weeks. Once-daily doses were increased from 30 mg to 180 mg to achieve intact parathyroid hormone levels of 250 pg per milliliter or less. The primary end point was the percentage of patients with values in this range during a 14-week efficacy-assessment phase. Forty-three percent of the cinacalcet group reached the primary end point, as compared with 5 percent of the placebo group (P<0.001). Overall, mean parathyroid hormone values decreased 43 percent in those receiving cinacalcet but increased 9 percent in the placebo group (P<0.001). The serum calcium-phosphorus product declined by 15 percent in the cinacalcet group and remained unchanged in the placebo group (P<0.001). Cinacalcet effectively reduced parathyroid hormone levels independently of disease severity or changes in vitamin D sterol dose. Cinacalcet lowers parathyroid hormone levels and improves calcium-phosphorus homeostasis in patients receiving hemodialysis who have uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis123

            Background: Currently, there is a lack of clarity in the literature as to whether there is a definitive difference between the effects of vitamins D2 and D3 in the raising of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Objective: The objective of this article was to report a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have directly compared the effects of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 on serum 25(OH)D concentrations in humans. Design: The ISI Web of Knowledge (January 1966 to July 2011) database was searched electronically for all relevant studies in adults that directly compared vitamin D3 with vitamin D2. The Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number register, and clinicaltrials.gov were also searched for any unpublished trials. Results: A meta-analysis of RCTs indicated that supplementation with vitamin D3 had a significant and positive effect in the raising of serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared with the effect of vitamin D2 (P = 0.001). When the frequency of dosage administration was compared, there was a significant response for vitamin D3 when given as a bolus dose (P = 0.0002) compared with administration of vitamin D2, but the effect was lost with daily supplementation. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicates that vitamin D3 is more efficacious at raising serum 25(OH)D concentrations than is vitamin D2, and thus vitamin D3 could potentially become the preferred choice for supplementation. However, additional research is required to examine the metabolic pathways involved in oral and intramuscular administration of vitamin D and the effects across age, sex, and ethnicity, which this review was unable to verify.
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              Predictors and consequences of altered mineral metabolism: the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study.

              Altered mineral metabolism contributes to bone disease, cardiovascular disease, and other clinical problems in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study describes the recent status, significant predictors, and potential consequences of abnormal mineral metabolism in representative groups of hemodialysis facilities (N= 307) and patients (N= 17,236) participating in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) in the United States, Europe, and Japan from 1996 to 2001. Many patients fell out of the recommended guideline range for serum concentrations of phosphorus (8% of patients below lower target range, 52% of patients above upper target range), albumin-corrected calcium (9% below, 50% above), calcium-phosphorus product (44% above), and intact PTH (51% below, 27% above). All-cause mortality was significantly and independently associated with serum concentrations of phosphorus (RR 1.04 per 1 mg/dL, P= 0.0003), calcium (RR 1.10 per 1 mg/dL, P < 0.0001), calcium-phosphorus product (RR 1.02 per 5 mg(2)/dL(2), P= 0.0001), PTH (1.01 per 100 pg/dL, P= 0.04), and dialysate calcium (RR 1.13 per 1 mEq/L, P= 0.01). Cardiovascular mortality was significantly associated with the serum concentrations of phosphorus (RR 1.09, P < 0.0001), calcium (RR 1.14, P < 0.0001), calcium-phosphorus product (RR 1.05, P < 0.0001), and PTH (RR 1.02, P= 0.03). The adjusted rate of parathyroidectomy varied 4-fold across the DOPPS countries, and was significantly associated with baseline concentrations of phosphorus (RR 1.17, P < 0.0001), calcium (RR 1.58, P < 0.0001), calcium-phosphorus product (RR 1.11, P < 0.0001), PTH (RR 1.07, P < 0.0001), and dialysate calcium concentration (RR 0.57, P= 0.03). Overall, 52% of patients received some form of vitamin D therapy, with parenteral forms almost exclusively restricted to the United States. Vitamin D was potentially underused in up to 34% of patients with high PTH, and overused in up to 46% of patients with low PTH. Phosphorus binders (mostly calcium salts during the study period) were used by 81% of patients, with potential overuse in up to 77% patients with low serum phosphorus concentration, and potential underuse in up to 18% of patients with a high serum phosphorus concentration. This study expands our understanding of the relationship between altered mineral metabolism and outcomes and identifies several potential opportunities for improved practice in this area.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2017
                01 June 2017
                : 13
                : 679-689
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Health Sciences, Renal Division, University of Milan, ASST Santi Paolo e Carlo, San Paolo Hospital, Milan
                [2 ]U.O.C. Nefrologia e Dialisi, Ospedale L. Parodi Delfino, Colleferro, Roma
                [3 ]Sant’Anna Hospital, ASST-Lariana, Como, Italy
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mario Cozzolino, Department of Health Sciences, Renal Division, University of Milan, School of Medicine, San Paolo Hospital, Via di Rudinì, 8 - 20142, Milan, Italy, Tel +39 02 8184 4381, Email mario.cozzolino@ 123456unimi.it
                Article
                tcrm-13-679
                10.2147/TCRM.S108490
                5461056
                © 2017 Cozzolino et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Medicine

                dialysis, secondary hyperparathyroidism, calcimimetic, ckd-mbd

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