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      Localization and physiological regulation of the exocytosis protein SNAP-25 in the brain and pituitary gland of Xenopus laevis.

      Journal of Neuroendocrinology

      Animals, Blotting, Western, Brain, metabolism, Exocytosis, physiology, Immunohistochemistry, Membrane Proteins, Nerve Tissue Proteins, Pituitary Gland, cytology, Subcellular Fractions, Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25, Tissue Distribution, Xenopus laevis

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          Abstract

          In mammals, the synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa, SNAP-25, is generally thought to play a role in synaptic exocytosis of neuronal messengers. Using a polyclonal antiserum against rat SNAP-25, we have shown the presence of a SNAP-25-like protein in the brain of the South-African clawed toad Xenopus laevis by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Xenopus SNAP-25 is ubiquitously present throughout the brain, where its distribution in various identified neuronal perikarya and axon tracts is described. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry also demonstrated the presence of SNAP-25 in the neural, intermediate and distal lobes of the pituitary gland. Intensity line plots of confocal laser scanning microscope images of isolated melanotropes indicated that SNAP-25 is produced and processed in the rough endoplasmatic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, and is associated with the plasma membrane. Immunoelectron microscopy substantiated the idea that SNAP-25 is present in the plasma membrane but also showed a close association of SNAP-25 with the bounding membrane of peptide-containing secretory granules in both the neurohemal axon terminals in the neural lobe and the endocrine melanotropes in the intermediate lobe. Quantitative Western blotting revealed that adapting Xenopus to a dark background has a clear stimulatory effect on the expression of SNAP-25 in the neural lobe and in the melanotrope cells. This background light intensity-dependent stimulation of SNAP-25 expression was confirmed by the demonstration of increased immunofluorescence recorded by confocal laser scanning microscopy of individual melanotropes of black background-adapted toads. On the basis of this study on Xenopus laevis, we conclude that SNAP-25 (i) plays a substantial role in the secretion of a wide variety of neuronal messengers; (ii) functions in the central nervous system but also in neurohormonal and endocrine systems; (iii) acts at the plasma membrane but possibly also at the membrane of synaptic vesicles and peptide-containing secretory granules; (iv) acts not only locally (as in synapses), but at various sites of the plasma membrane (as in the endocrine melanotrope cell); and (v) can be upregulated in its expression by physiological stimuli that increase the extent of the molecular machinery involved in exocytosis.

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          Most cited references 29

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          A protein assembly-disassembly pathway in vitro that may correspond to sequential steps of synaptic vesicle docking, activation, and fusion.

          The SNARE hypothesis holds that a transport vesicle chooses its target for fusion when a soluble NSF attachment protein (SNAP) receptor on the vesicle (v-SNARE) pairs with its cognate t-SNARE at the target membrane. Three synaptosomal membrane proteins have previously been identified: syntaxin, SNAP-25 (t-SNAREs), and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) (v-SNARE); all assemble with SNAPs and NSF into 20S fusion particles. We now report that in the absence of SNAP and NSF, these three SNAREs form a stable complex that can also bind synaptotagmin. Synaptotagmin is displaced by alpha-SNAP, suggesting that these two proteins share binding sites on the SNARE complex and implying that synaptotagmin operates as a "clamp" to prevent fusion from proceeding in the absence of a signal. The alpha-SNAP-SNARE complex can bind NSF, and NSF-dependent hydrolysis of ATP dissociates the complex, separating syntaxin, SNAP-25, and VAMP. ATP hydrolysis by NSF may provide motion to initiate bilayer fusion.
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            The synaptic vesicle cycle: a cascade of protein-protein interactions.

            The synaptic vesicle cycle at the nerve terminal consists of vesicle exocytosis with neurotransmitter release, endocytosis of empty vesicles, and regeneration of fresh vesicles. Of all cellular transport pathways, the synaptic vesicle cycle is the fastest and the most tightly regulated. A convergence of results now allows formulation of molecular models for key steps of the cycle. These developments may form the basis for a mechanistic understanding of higher neural function.
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              EVALUATION OF THE TRYPAN BLUE TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINATION OF CELL VIABILITY.

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