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An Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding Scheme for Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks with Sink Mobility

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      Industrial Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (IUASNs) come with intrinsic challenges like long propagation delay, small bandwidth, large energy consumption, three-dimensional deployment, and high deployment and battery replacement cost. Any routing strategy proposed for IUASN must take into account these constraints. The vector based forwarding schemes in literature forward data packets to sink using holding time and location information of the sender, forwarder, and sink nodes. Holding time suppresses data broadcasts; however, it fails to keep energy and delay fairness in the network. To achieve this, we propose an Energy Scaled and Expanded Vector-Based Forwarding (ESEVBF) scheme. ESEVBF uses the residual energy of the node to scale and vector pipeline distance ratio to expand the holding time. Resulting scaled and expanded holding time of all forwarding nodes has a significant difference to avoid multiple forwarding, which reduces energy consumption and energy balancing in the network. If a node has a minimum holding time among its neighbors, it shrinks the holding time and quickly forwards the data packets upstream. The performance of ESEVBF is analyzed through in network scenario with and without node mobility to ensure its effectiveness. Simulation results show that ESEVBF has low energy consumption, reduces forwarded data copies, and less end-to-end delay.

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      Most cited references 31

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      Underwater acoustic sensor networks: research challenges

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          Underwater acoustic networks


            Author and article information

            [1 ]Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan; zahidmufti@
            [2 ]University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
            [3 ]School of Engineering, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK; sajjad.hussain@
            [4 ]COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
            [5 ]Department of Information and Communication Engineering, DGIST 42988, Korea; bouk@
            [6 ]Biomedical Technology Department College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11633, Saudi Arabia; salabed@
            [7 ]Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA; nguizani@
            Author notes
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel)
            Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)
            30 September 2017
            October 2017
            : 17
            : 10
            © 2017 by the authors.

            Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (



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