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      Vesicular Release of Prolactin from Preformed Prolactin Granules Is Stimulated by Soluble Factor(s) from the Anterior Pituitary of Lactating Rats

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          This study demonstrates that conditioned media (CM) from the anterior pituitary gland (AP) of lactating rats contains soluble factors that promote in vitro prolactin (PRL) release from the pituitary glands of male rats. CM-induced PRL release was confirmed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, ELISA and bioassay. In cultured AP cells challenged with CM, increased intracellular staining with the dye FM1-43 was observed, suggesting vesicular PRL release and subsequent endocytosis. The percentage and hormone content of PRL-containing cells but not of growth hormone-containing cells increased in cultured male AP cells when exposed to CM. When the release of PRL, prelabeled with [<sup>3</sup>H] leucine for 30 min to 24 h was examined, no stimulatory effect of CM was observed, suggesting that released PRL originates from hormone synthesized more than 24 h earlier. Accordingly, the PRL content of mature granules from male pituitary tissues decreased after CM treatment. These findings were confirmed by electron microscopy immunogold PRL labeling. Treatment with inhibitors of protein synthesis or vesicle trafficking between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex did not prevent the stimulatory effect of CM on PRL release. However, blockage of traffic to the plasma membrane completely abolished the effect of CM. These results suggest that CM from the AP of lactators contains soluble factor(s) capable of inducing rapid vesicular release of PRL in the male AP, which originates from preformed, mature granules by mechanisms independent of protein synthesis.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Brefeldin A: insights into the control of membrane traffic and organelle structure

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              Protein targeting via the "constitutive-like" secretory pathway in isolated pancreatic islets: passive sorting in the immature granule compartment

               P. Arvan,  R Kuliawat (1992)
              We have suggested the existence of a novel "constitutive-like" secretory pathway in pancreatic islets, which preferentially conveys a fraction of newly synthesized C-peptide, insulin, and proinsulin, and is related to the presence of immature secretory granules (IGs). Regulated exocytosis of IGs results in an equimolar secretion of C- peptide and insulin; however an assay of the constitutive-like secretory pathway recently demonstrated that this route conveys newly synthesized C-peptide in molar excess of insulin (Arvan, P., R. Kuliawat, D. Prabakaran, A.-M. Zavacki, D. Elahi, S. Wang, and D. Pilkey. J. Biol. Chem. 266:14171-14174). We now use this assay to examine the kinetics of constitutive-like secretion. Though its duration is much shorter than the life of mature granules under physiologic conditions, constitutive-like secretion appears comparatively slow (t1/2 approximately equal to 1.5 h) compared with the rate of proinsulin traffic through the ER and Golgi stacks. We have examined whether this slow rate is coupled to the rate of IG exit from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Escape from the 20 degrees C temperature block reveals a t1/2 less than or equal to 12 min from TGN exit to stimulated release of IGs; the time required for IG formation is too rapid to be rate limiting for constitutive-like secretion. Further, conditions are described in which constitutive-like secretion is blocked yet regulated discharge of IGs remains completely intact. Thus, constitutive-like secretion appears to represent an independent secretory pathway that is kinetically restricted to a specific granule maturation period. The data support a model in which passive sorting due to insulin crystallization results in enrichment of C-peptide in membrane vesicles that bud from IGs to initiate the constitutive-like secretory pathway.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                April 2007
                05 March 2007
                : 85
                : 1
                : 1-15
                Departamentos de aNeurobiología Celular y Molecular, y de bNeurobiología del Desarrollo y Electrofisiología, Instituto de Neurobiología, Campus UNAM, Juriquilla-Querétaro, y cDepartamento de Biofísica, Instituto de Fisiología Celular, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F., México
                100507 Neuroendocrinology 2007;85:1–15
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 9, References: 35, Pages: 15
                TRH and Prolactin


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