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      Associations between Food Group Intake and Physical Frailty in Irish Community-Dwelling Older Adults

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Certain nutrients have shown protective effects against frailty, but less is known about the influence of individual food groups. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the intake of different food groups and physical frailty in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults in Cork, Ireland.

          Methods:

          One hundred and forty-two (n = 81 females, n = 61 males, age 74.1 ± 6.80 years) Irish community-dwelling volunteers aged ⩾65 years participated in this cross-sectional study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Frailty was identified as having 3 or more of the following criteria: weight loss, exhaustion, weakness, slow walking speed and low physical activity. Relationships between intakes of food groups and frailty score were determined using Spearman’s rank (and partial rank) correlations and ordinal logistic regression analysis.

          Results:

          Negative Spearman’s rank correlations were observed between frailty score and fish and fish products, fruit and vegetables and nuts and seeds, while positive correlations were found between frailty score and potatoes, fats and oils and sugars, preserves and snacks ( P < .05). After adjustment for confounders, partial rank correlations remained statistically significant ( P < .05) for all of the above dietary variables, with the exception of nuts and seeds ( P > .05). Following ordinal logistic regression, the odds ratios (ORs) (95%CI) for frailty incidence for those in the lowest tertile of food group intake compared to the highest were; 3.04 (1.09-8.85) for fish and fish products, 4.34 (1.54-13.13) for fruit and vegetables, 1.52 (0.58-4.15) for nuts and seeds, 0.54 (0.19-1.51) for potatoes, 0.58 (0.17-1.95) for fats and oils and 0.49 (0.16-1.47) for sugars, preserves and snacks.

          Conclusion:

          This study suggests that intakes of selected food groups are independently associated with frailty. These findings may hold significant relevance for the development of future frailty prevention strategies.

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          Most cited references 52

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          The Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE): development and evaluation.

          A Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) was evaluated in a sample of community-dwelling, older adults. Respondents were randomly assigned to complete the PASE by mail or telephone before or after a home visit assessment. Item weights for the PASE were derived by regressing a physical activity principal component score on responses to the PASE. The component score was based on 3-day motion sensor counts, a 3-day physical activity dairy and a global activity self-assessment. Test-retest reliability, assessed over a 3-7 week interval, was 0.75 (95% CI = 0.69-0.80). Reliability for mail administration (r = 0.84) was higher than for telephone administration (r = 0.68). Construct validity was established by correlating PASE scores with health status and physiologic measures. As hypothesized, PASE scores were positively associated with grip strength (r = 0.37), static balance (r = +0.33), leg strength (r = 0.25) and negatively correlated with resting heart rate (r = -0.13), age (r = -0.34) and perceived health status (r = -0.34); and overall Sickness Impact Profile score (r = -0.42). The PASE is a brief, easily scored, reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of physical activity in epidemiologic studies of older people.
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            Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional: selected literature.

            Epidemiologic evidence of a protective role for fruits and vegetables in cancer prevention is substantial. The strength of this scientific base guides US national policymaking in diet and health issues and facilitates community and local programs that address national dietary goals to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Current scientific evidence also suggests a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of coronary heart disease, and evidence is accumulating for a protective role in stroke. In addition, a new scientific base is emerging to support a protective role for fruits and vegetables in prevention of cataract formation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diverticulosis, and possibly, hypertension. This article provides an overview of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable consumption for each of these conditions, including brief discussions of underlying protective mechanisms, identifies key scientific findings regarding the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption, and outlines applications of these findings for dietetics professionals. The evidence reviewed provides additional support for increased consumption of a wide variety of vegetables, in particular, dark-green leafy, cruciferous, and deep-yellow-orange ones, and a wide variety of fruits, in particular, citrus and deep-yellow-orange ones. Continued attention to increasing fruit and vegetable consumption is a practical and important way to optimize nutrition to reduce disease risk and maximize good health.
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              Low nutrient intake is an essential component of frailty in older persons.

              Poor nutrient intake is conceptualized to be a component of frailty, but this hypothesis has been little investigated. We examined the association between low energy and nutrient intake and frailty. We used data from 802 persons aged 65 years or older participating to the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti, aging in the Chianti area) study. Frailty was defined by having at least two of the following criteria: low muscle strength, feeling of exhaustion, low walking speed, and reduced physical activity. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) questionnaire was used to estimate the daily intake of energy and nutrients. Low intake was defined using the value corresponding to the lowest sex-specific intake quintile of energy and specific nutrients. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to study the association of frailty and frailty criteria with low intakes of energy and nutrients. Daily energy intake < or =21 kcal/kg was significantly associated with frailty (odds ratio [OR]: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.02-1.5). After adjusting for energy intake, a low intake of protein (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.18-3.31); vitamins D (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.48-3.73), E (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.28-3.33), C (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.34-3.45), and folate (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14-2.98); and having a low intake of more than three nutrients (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.29-3.50) were significantly and independently related to frailty. This study provides evidence that low intakes of energy and selected nutrients are independently associated with frailty.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutr Metab Insights
                Nutr Metab Insights
                NMI
                spnmi
                Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                1178-6388
                30 March 2021
                2021
                : 14
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland
                [2 ]Department of Sport, Leisure and Childhood Studies, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland
                [3 ]Department of Mathematics, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland
                Author notes
                Maeve Lorraine O’Connell, Department of Biological Sciences, CREATE, Cork Institute of Technology, Rossa Avenue, Bishopstown, T12 P928 Cork, Ireland. Email: maeve.oconnell1@ 123456mycit.ie
                Article
                10.1177_11786388211006447
                10.1177/11786388211006447
                8013632
                © The Author(s) 2021

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Categories
                Original Research
                Custom metadata
                January-December 2021
                ts1

                elderly, frailty, food groups, dietary intake

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