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      Estimating Gene Flow between Refuges and Crops: A Case Study of the Biological Control of Eriosoma lanigerum by Aphelinus mali in Apple Orchards

      1 , * , 3 ,   2 , 1

      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Parasitoid disturbance populations in agroecosystems can be maintained through the provision of habitat refuges with host resources. However, specialized herbivores that feed on different host plants have been shown to form host-specialized races. Parasitoids may subsequently specialize on these herbivore host races and therefore prefer parasitizing insects from the refuge, avoiding foraging on the crop. Evidence is therefore required that parasitoids are able to move between the refuge and the crop and that the refuge is a source of parasitoids, without being an important source of herbivore pests. A North-South transect trough the Chilean Central Valley was sampled, including apple orchards and surrounding Pyracantha coccinea (M. Roem) (Rosales: Rosacea) hedges that were host of Eriosoma lanigerum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a globally important aphid pest of cultivated apples. At each orchard, aphid colonies were collected and taken back to the laboratory to sample the emerging hymenopteran parasitoid Aphelinus mali (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Aphid and parasitoid individuals were genotyped using species-specific microsatellite loci and genetic variability was assessed. By studying genetic variation, natural geographic barriers of the aphid pest became evident and some evidence for incipient host-plant specialization was found. However, this had no effect on the population-genetic features of its most important parasitoid. In conclusion, the lack of genetic differentiation among the parasitoids suggests the existence of a single large and panmictic population, which could parasite aphids on apple orchards and on P. coccinea hedges. The latter could thus comprise a suitable and putative refuge for parasitoids, which could be used to increase the effectiveness of biological control. Moreover, the strong geographical differentiation of the aphid suggests local reinfestations occur mainly from other apple orchards with only low reinfestation from P. cocinnea hedges. Finally, we propose that the putative refuge could act as a source of parasitoids without being a major source of aphids.

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          Most cited references 82

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          The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees.

          A new method called the neighbor-joining method is proposed for reconstructing phylogenetic trees from evolutionary distance data. The principle of this method is to find pairs of operational taxonomic units (OTUs [= neighbors]) that minimize the total branch length at each stage of clustering of OTUs starting with a starlike tree. The branch lengths as well as the topology of a parsimonious tree can quickly be obtained by using this method. Using computer simulation, we studied the efficiency of this method in obtaining the correct unrooted tree in comparison with that of five other tree-making methods: the unweighted pair group method of analysis, Farris's method, Sattath and Tversky's method, Li's method, and Tateno et al.'s modified Farris method. The new, neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky's method are shown to be generally better than the other methods.
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            Numerous transposed sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I-II in aphids of the genus Sitobion (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

            Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products corresponding to 803 bp of the cytochrome oxidase subunits I and II region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA COI-II) were deduced to consist of multiple haplotypes in three Sitobion species. We investigated the molecular basis of these observations. PCR products were cloned, and six clones from one individual per species were sequenced. In each individual, one sequence was found commonly, but also two or three divergent sequences were seen. The divergent sequences were shown to be nonmitochondrial by sequencing from purified mtDNA and Southern blotting experiments. All seven nonmitochondrial clones sequenced to completion were unique. Nonmitochondrial sequences have a high proportion of unique sites, and very few characters are shared between nonmitochondrial clones to the exclusion of mtDNA. From these data, we infer that fragments of mtDNA have been transposed separately (probably into aphid chromosomes), at a frequency only known to be equalled in humans. The transposition phenomenon appears to occur infrequently or not at all in closely related genera and other aphids investigated. Patterns of nucleotide substitution in mtDNA inferred over a parsimony tree are very different from those in transposed sequences. Compared with mtDNA, nonmitochondrial sequences have less codon position bias, more even exchanges between A, G, C and T, and a higher proportion of nonsynonymous replacements. Although these data are consistent with the transposed sequences being under less constraint than mtDNA, changes in the nonmitochondrial sequences are not random: there remains significant position bias, and probable excesses of synonymous replacements and of conservative inferred amino acid replacements. We conclude that a proportion of the inferred change in the nonmitochondrial sequences occurred before transposition. We believe that Sitobion aphids (and other species exhibiting mtDNA transposition) may be important for studying the molecular evolution of mtDNA and pseudogenes. However, our data highlight the need to establish the true evolutionary relationships between sequences in comparative investigations.
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              Sibship reconstruction from genetic data with typing errors.

               Jinliang Wang (2004)
              Likelihood methods have been developed to partition individuals in a sample into full-sib and half-sib families using genetic marker data without parental information. They invariably make the critical assumption that marker data are free of genotyping errors and mutations and are thus completely reliable in inferring sibships. Unfortunately, however, this assumption is rarely tenable for virtually all kinds of genetic markers in practical use and, if violated, can severely bias sibship estimates as shown by simulations in this article. I propose a new likelihood method with simple and robust models of typing error incorporated into it. Simulations show that the new method can be used to infer full- and half-sibships accurately from marker data with a high error rate and to identify typing errors at each locus in each reconstructed sib family. The new method also improves previous ones by adopting a fresh iterative procedure for updating allele frequencies with reconstructed sibships taken into account, by allowing for the use of parental information, and by using efficient algorithms for calculating the likelihood function and searching for the maximum-likelihood configuration. It is tested extensively on simulated data with a varying number of marker loci, different rates of typing errors, and various sample sizes and family structures and applied to two empirical data sets to demonstrate its usefulness.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2011
                2 November 2011
                : 6
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratorio de Interacciones Insecto-Planta, Universidad de Talca, Talca, Chile
                [2 ]Plantes et Systèmes de culture Horticoles, INRA, Avignon, France
                [3 ]Facultad de Ciencias, Instituto de Ecología y Evolución, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile
                Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Netherlands
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: BL. Performed the experiments: BL PF. Analyzed the data: BL PF CCF AM. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: BL PF. Wrote the paper: BL PF CCF.

                Article
                PONE-D-11-08904
                10.1371/journal.pone.0026694
                3206839
                22073185
                Lavandero et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Article
                Agriculture
                Agroecology
                Agro-Population Ecology
                Ecosystems Agroecology
                Pest Control
                Integrated Control
                Biology
                Genetics
                Population Genetics
                Plant Science
                Plant Genetics

                Uncategorized

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