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      Hydrogen sulphide enhances photosynthesis through promoting chloroplast biogenesis, photosynthetic enzyme expression, and thiol redox modification in Spinacia oleracea seedlings

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          Hydrogen sulphide (H 2S) is emerging as a potential messenger molecule involved in modulation of physiological processes in animals and plants. In this report, the role of H 2S in modulating photosynthesis of Spinacia oleracea seedlings was investigated. The main results are as follows. (i) NaHS, a donor of H 2S, was found to increase the chlorophyll content in leaves. (ii) Seedlings treated with different concentrations of NaHS for 30 d exhibited a significant increase in seedling growth, soluble protein content, and photosynthesis in a dose-dependent manner, with 100 μM NaHS being the optimal concentration. (iii) The number of grana lamellae stacking into the functional chloroplasts was also markedly increased by treatment with the optimal NaHS concentration. (iv) The light saturation point ( Lsp), maximum net photosynthetic rate ( Pmax), carboxylation efficiency ( CE), and maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II ( F v/ F m) reached their maximal values, whereas the light compensation point ( Lcp) and dark respiration ( Rd) decreased significantly under the optimal NaHS concentration. (v) The activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBISCO) and the protein expression of the RuBISCO large subunit (RuBISCO LSU) were also significantly enhanced by NaHS. (vi) The total thiol content, glutathione and cysteine levels, internal concentration of H 2S, and O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase and L-cysteine desulphydrase activities were increased to some extent, suggesting that NaHS also induced the activity of thiol redox modification. (vii) Further studies using quantitative real-time PCR showed that the gene encoding the RuBISCO large subunit ( RBCL), small subunit ( RBCS), ferredoxin thioredoxin reductase ( FTR), ferredoxin ( FRX), thioredoxin m ( TRX-m), thioredoxin f ( TRX-f), NADP-malate dehydrogenase ( NADP-MDH), and O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase ( OAS) were up-regulated, but genes encoding serine acetyltransferase ( SERAT), glycolate oxidase ( GYX), and cytochrome oxidase ( CCO) were down-regulated after exposure to the optimal concentration of H 2S. These findings suggest that increases in RuBISCO activity and the function of thiol redox modification may underlie the amelioration of photosynthesis and that H 2S plays an important role in plant photosynthesis regulation by modulating the expression of genes involved in photosynthesis and thiol redox modification.

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          Most cited references 71

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          H2S as a physiologic vasorelaxant: hypertension in mice with deletion of cystathionine gamma-lyase.

          Studies of nitric oxide over the past two decades have highlighted the fundamental importance of gaseous signaling molecules in biology and medicine. The physiological role of other gases such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now receiving increasing attention. Here we show that H2S is physiologically generated by cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and that genetic deletion of this enzyme in mice markedly reduces H2S levels in the serum, heart, aorta, and other tissues. Mutant mice lacking CSE display pronounced hypertension and diminished endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. CSE is physiologically activated by calcium-calmodulin, which is a mechanism for H2S formation in response to vascular activation. These findings provide direct evidence that H2S is a physiologic vasodilator and regulator of blood pressure.
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            Chlorophyll fluorescence--a practical guide.

            Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis has become one of the most powerful and widely used techniques available to plant physiologists and ecophysiologists. This review aims to provide an introduction for the novice into the methodology and applications of chlorophyll fluorescence. After a brief introduction into the theoretical background of the technique, the methodology and some of the technical pitfalls that can be encountered are explained. A selection of examples is then used to illustrate the types of information that fluorescence can provide.
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              The vasorelaxant effect of H(2)S as a novel endogenous gaseous K(ATP) channel opener.

              Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been traditionally viewed as a toxic gas. It is also, however, endogenously generated from cysteine metabolism. We attempted to assess the physiological role of H(2)S in the regulation of vascular contractility, the modulation of H(2)S production in vascular tissues, and the underlying mechanisms. Intravenous bolus injection of H(2)S transiently decreased blood pressure of rats by 12- 30 mmHg, which was antagonized by prior blockade of K(ATP) channels. H(2)S relaxed rat aortic tissues in vitro in a K(ATP) channel-dependent manner. In isolated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), H(2)S directly increased K(ATP) channel currents and hyperpolarized membrane. The expression of H(2)S-generating enzyme was identified in vascular SMCs, but not in endothelium. The endogenous production of H(2)S from different vascular tissues was also directly measured with the abundant level in the order of tail artery, aorta and mesenteric artery. Most importantly, H(2)S production from vascular tissues was enhanced by nitric oxide. Our results demonstrate that H(2)S is an important endogenous vasoactive factor and the first identified gaseous opener of K(ATP) channels in vascular SMCs.

                Author and article information

                J Exp Bot
                Journal of Experimental Botany
                Oxford University Press
                August 2011
                30 May 2011
                30 May 2011
                : 62
                : 13
                : 4481-4493
                [1 ]Key Laboratory for Subtropical Wetland Ecosystem Research of MOE, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005, PR China
                [2 ]Department of Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA
                [3 ]Central Grasslands Research Extension Center, North Dakota State University, Streeter, ND 58483, USA
                [4 ]State Key Laboratory of Agobiotechnology and School of Life Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, PR China
                Author notes
                []To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: zhenghl@ 123456xmu.edu.cn

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2011 The Author(s).

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                This paper is available online free of all access charges (see http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/open_access.html for further details)

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