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      Effects of LRP1B Regulated by HSF1 on Lipid Metabolism in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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          Abstract

          Background

          To date, aberrated lipid metabolism has been recognized as an important feature of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, it remains poorly defined. As a large member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, LRP1B plays a pivotal role in maintaining lipid homeostasis. Here we investigated the expression feature of LRP1B in HCC and elucidated its effects on lipid metabolism of HCC cells.

          Materials and Methods

          LRP1B expression in HCC cells and tumor tissues was respectively examined by quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Crispr-cas9 RNA inference and CRISPRa transcription activation system were used to downregulate and upregulate LRP1B expression, respectively. Oil red O staining, DiD staining combined with flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the lipid content in HCC cells. Overall survival (OS) and time to recurrence (TTR) were calculated; meanwhile, Kaplan–Meier and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the prognosis of HCC patients.

          Results

          In contrast to inactivation expression in a majority of cancers, LRP1B showed predominantly strong expression in HCC. LRP1B knockdown induced the decrease of intracellular lipid content, downregulated expressions of lipid synthesis-related enzymes and upregulated expressions of β-oxidation-related enzymes as well as activated the AMPK signaling. Moreover, HSF1 directly regulated the transcription of LRP1B and was involved in LRP1B-mediated lipid metabolism in HCC; meanwhile, the combination of LRP1B knockdown and HSF1 inhibition suppressed synergistically the proliferation of HCC cells. In addition, simultaneous expression of HSF1 and LRP1B was an independent prognostic factor for HCC patients.

          Conclusion

          Altogether, the study reveals a novel unique role of LRP1B in HCC by serving as a mediator in lipid metabolism, which provides an insight for making explorable therapeutic strategies for HCC.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Global, regional, and national age-sex-specific mortality for 282 causes of death in 195 countries and territories, 1980–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

          Summary Background Global development goals increasingly rely on country-specific estimates for benchmarking a nation's progress. To meet this need, the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 estimated global, regional, national, and, for selected locations, subnational cause-specific mortality beginning in the year 1980. Here we report an update to that study, making use of newly available data and improved methods. GBD 2017 provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 282 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2017. Methods The causes of death database is composed of vital registration (VR), verbal autopsy (VA), registry, survey, police, and surveillance data. GBD 2017 added ten VA studies, 127 country-years of VR data, 502 cancer-registry country-years, and an additional surveillance country-year. Expansions of the GBD cause of death hierarchy resulted in 18 additional causes estimated for GBD 2017. Newly available data led to subnational estimates for five additional countries—Ethiopia, Iran, New Zealand, Norway, and Russia. Deaths assigned International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for non-specific, implausible, or intermediate causes of death were reassigned to underlying causes by redistribution algorithms that were incorporated into uncertainty estimation. We used statistical modelling tools developed for GBD, including the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm), to generate cause fractions and cause-specific death rates for each location, year, age, and sex. Instead of using UN estimates as in previous versions, GBD 2017 independently estimated population size and fertility rate for all locations. Years of life lost (YLLs) were then calculated as the sum of each death multiplied by the standard life expectancy at each age. All rates reported here are age-standardised. Findings At the broadest grouping of causes of death (Level 1), non-communicable diseases (NCDs) comprised the greatest fraction of deaths, contributing to 73·4% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 72·5–74·1) of total deaths in 2017, while communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) causes accounted for 18·6% (17·9–19·6), and injuries 8·0% (7·7–8·2). Total numbers of deaths from NCD causes increased from 2007 to 2017 by 22·7% (21·5–23·9), representing an additional 7·61 million (7·20–8·01) deaths estimated in 2017 versus 2007. The death rate from NCDs decreased globally by 7·9% (7·0–8·8). The number of deaths for CMNN causes decreased by 22·2% (20·0–24·0) and the death rate by 31·8% (30·1–33·3). Total deaths from injuries increased by 2·3% (0·5–4·0) between 2007 and 2017, and the death rate from injuries decreased by 13·7% (12·2–15·1) to 57·9 deaths (55·9–59·2) per 100 000 in 2017. Deaths from substance use disorders also increased, rising from 284 000 deaths (268 000–289 000) globally in 2007 to 352 000 (334 000–363 000) in 2017. Between 2007 and 2017, total deaths from conflict and terrorism increased by 118·0% (88·8–148·6). A greater reduction in total deaths and death rates was observed for some CMNN causes among children younger than 5 years than for older adults, such as a 36·4% (32·2–40·6) reduction in deaths from lower respiratory infections for children younger than 5 years compared with a 33·6% (31·2–36·1) increase in adults older than 70 years. Globally, the number of deaths was greater for men than for women at most ages in 2017, except at ages older than 85 years. Trends in global YLLs reflect an epidemiological transition, with decreases in total YLLs from enteric infections, respiratory infections and tuberculosis, and maternal and neonatal disorders between 1990 and 2017; these were generally greater in magnitude at the lowest levels of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI). At the same time, there were large increases in YLLs from neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. YLL rates decreased across the five leading Level 2 causes in all SDI quintiles. The leading causes of YLLs in 1990—neonatal disorders, lower respiratory infections, and diarrhoeal diseases—were ranked second, fourth, and fifth, in 2017. Meanwhile, estimated YLLs increased for ischaemic heart disease (ranked first in 2017) and stroke (ranked third), even though YLL rates decreased. Population growth contributed to increased total deaths across the 20 leading Level 2 causes of mortality between 2007 and 2017. Decreases in the cause-specific mortality rate reduced the effect of population growth for all but three causes: substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and skin and subcutaneous diseases. Interpretation Improvements in global health have been unevenly distributed among populations. Deaths due to injuries, substance use disorders, armed conflict and terrorism, neoplasms, and cardiovascular disease are expanding threats to global health. For causes of death such as lower respiratory and enteric infections, more rapid progress occurred for children than for the oldest adults, and there is continuing disparity in mortality rates by sex across age groups. Reductions in the death rate of some common diseases are themselves slowing or have ceased, primarily for NCDs, and the death rate for selected causes has increased in the past decade. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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            X-tile: a new bio-informatics tool for biomarker assessment and outcome-based cut-point optimization.

            The ability to parse tumors into subsets based on biomarker expression has many clinical applications; however, there is no global way to visualize the best cut-points for creating such divisions. We have developed a graphical method, the X-tile plot that illustrates the presence of substantial tumor subpopulations and shows the robustness of the relationship between a biomarker and outcome by construction of a two dimensional projection of every possible subpopulation. We validate X-tile plots by examining the expression of several established prognostic markers (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, estrogen receptor, p53 expression, patient age, tumor size, and node number) in cohorts of breast cancer patients and show how X-tile plots of each marker predict population subsets rooted in the known biology of their expression.
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              AMPK: guardian of metabolism and mitochondrial homeostasis.

              Cells constantly adapt their metabolism to meet their energy needs and respond to nutrient availability. Eukaryotes have evolved a very sophisticated system to sense low cellular ATP levels via the serine/threonine kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) complex. Under conditions of low energy, AMPK phosphorylates specific enzymes and growth control nodes to increase ATP generation and decrease ATP consumption. In the past decade, the discovery of numerous new AMPK substrates has led to a more complete understanding of the minimal number of steps required to reprogramme cellular metabolism from anabolism to catabolism. This energy switch controls cell growth and several other cellular processes, including lipid and glucose metabolism and autophagy. Recent studies have revealed that one ancestral function of AMPK is to promote mitochondrial health, and multiple newly discovered targets of AMPK are involved in various aspects of mitochondrial homeostasis, including mitophagy. This Review discusses how AMPK functions as a central mediator of the cellular response to energetic stress and mitochondrial insults and coordinates multiple features of autophagy and mitochondrial biology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Hepatocell Carcinoma
                J Hepatocell Carcinoma
                jhc
                jhepc
                Journal of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
                Dove
                2253-5969
                08 December 2020
                2020
                : 7
                : 361-376
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education , Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University , Shanghai 200032, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of First Surgery, the Third Affiliated Hospital, NAVY Medical University , Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Department of Clinical Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University , Nanning, Guangxi, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kun Guo Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis and Cancer Invasion, Ministry of Education , Building 19, No. 180, Fenglin Road, Shanghai20032, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-21-54237962Fax +86-21-54237959 Email guo.kun@zs-hospital.sh.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                279123
                10.2147/JHC.S279123
                7733418
                © 2020 Li et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 6, References: 57, Pages: 16
                Categories
                Original Research

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