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      Tratamento hipolipemiante em situações especiais: pós-transplante e/ou terapia imunossupressora Translated title: Hypolipidemic treatment under special conditions: posttransplant and/or immunosupressive therapy

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          Existem dados limitados sobre o uso concomitante de agentes hipolipemiantes e drogas imunosupressoras. As melhores evidências provêm do uso de estatinas e ciclosporina. Em termos farmacodinâmicos, estas duas drogas têm substratos diferentes. No tocante a farmacocinética, as estatinas não modificam as concentrações plasmáticas de ciclosporina. Entretanto, quando combinada a qualquer estatina, um controle rigoroso dos níveis de ciclosporina é recomendado, levando-se em conta o seu estreito intervalo terapêutico. Ciclosporina afeta a área sob a curva de muitas estatinas, pela inibição do CYP450 3A4, aumentando a exposição sistêmica dessas drogas. Pravastatina se apresenta como o composto de maior segurança, uma vez que é glucuronidado. A área sob a curva para as outras estatinas (sinvastatina, lovastatina, atorvastatina, cerivastatina e rosuvastatina) pode aumentar em graus variáveis de acordo com o seu sítio de metabolização, extração hepática pelo OATP-transportador, secreção biliar, excreção renal, e extrusão da droga pelo sistema MDR.

          Translated abstract

          There are limited data regarding the use of hypolipidemic agents concomitantly with immunosuppressive drugs. Best evidence is provided for the use of statins and cyclosporine. In terms of pharmacodynamics, these two drugs have different substrates. In respect to pharmacokinetics, statins usually do not modify serum concentrations of cyclosporine, however when combined with any statin a careful monitoring of cyclosporine levels is recommended, due to a narrow therapeutic window of the immunosupressive agent. Conversely, cyclosporine does affect the area under the curve for many statins, by inhibiting the CYP450 3A4, thus increasing systemic exposure to statins. Pravastatin appears to be the safest compound, once it is glucuronized. The area under the curve for the other statins (simvastatin, lovastatin, atorvastatin, cerivastatin, and rosuvastatin) can be increased in variable degrees according to the site of metabolization, liver extraction by OATP-C transporter, biliary secretion, renal excretion, and drug extrusion by the MDR system.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Comparative beneficial effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on cardiac allograft rejection and survival.

          We sought to evaluate the relative effects of low doses of pravastatin (20 mg/day) and simvastatin (10 mg/day) on indices of cardiac allograft rejection. We further examined the relative efficacy and safety of these two drugs on lipid-lowering in heart transplantation.
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            HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors as immunomodulators: potential use in transplant rejection.

            The benefit of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) to the cardiovascular system is now well established and these drugs are being used extensively to treat hypercholesterolaemia clinically. However, as clinical outcomes become available it appears that statins are proving more beneficial than expected and thus it is being proposed that the actions of statins go beyond their ability to lower serum cholesterol levels. The report that statins can interact directly with lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 and prevent it engaging with the intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 receptor on T cells is a novel mechanism of statin action and provides convincing evidence that these compounds can regulate biological systems other than by the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Immunosuppression to prevent organ transplant rejection is one application for which statins are currently being assessed. The clinical evidence is conflicting and does not convincingly reflect whether statins are beneficial as immunomodulators. However, in vivo studies investigating the cellular actions of statins have identified two mechanisms by which statins can potentially modulate an in vivo immune response. Firstly, statins regulate inducible class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) expression on macrophages and endothelial cells. Secondly, statins can inhibit LFA-1 adhesion to ICAM-1 and thus regulate T cell activation. These findings suggest that statins have the potential to regulate an immune response in vivo and that more investigation is essential in order to explain the opposing clinical data.
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              Risk factors for and management of post-transplantation cardiovascular disease.

               B Fellström (2000)
              The mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in transplant recipients are greater than in the general population. CVD is a major cause of both graft loss and patient death in renal transplant recipients, and improving cardiovascular health in transplant recipients will presumably help to extend both patient and graft survival. Further studies are needed to better evaluate the effectiveness of risk modification on subsequent CVD morbidity and mortality. There is no reason to consider risk factors for CVD such as hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus in transplant recipients differently from in the general population. In addition, there are specific transplantation risk factors such as acute rejection episodes and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. It is obvious that several of the immunosuppressive agents used today have disadvantageous influences on risk factors for CVD such as hyperlipidaemia, hypertension and post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM), but the relative importance of immunosuppressant-induced increases in these risk factors is basically unknown. This may be a strong argument for the selective use and individual tailoring of immunosuppressive agents based upon the risk factor profile of the patient, without jeopardising the function of the graft. Hyperlipidaemia is common after transplantation, and immunosuppression with corticosteroids, cyclosporin, or sirolimus (rapamycin) causes different types of post-transplantation hyperlipidaemia. However, to date, no studies have demonstrated that lipid lowering strategies significantly reduce CVD morbidity or mortality and improve allograft survival in transplant recipients. Several studies using preventive or interventional approaches are ongoing and will be reported in the near future. Post-transplantation hypertension appears to be a major risk factor determining graft and patient survival, and immunosuppressive agents have different effects on hypertension. Controlled studies support the opinion that post-transplantation hypertension must be treated as strictly as in a population with essential hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or chronic renal failure. As increasing numbers of immunosuppressive agents become available for use, we may be in a better position to tailor immunosuppressive therapy to the individual patient, avoiding the use of diabetogenic drugs, drug combinations, or inappropriate doses in patients susceptible to PTDM. Multiple acute rejection episodes have also been demonstrated to be a risk factor for CVD - a strong argument for the use of immunosuppressive drugs to reduce acute rejection. Until we have a better understanding from ongoing landmark studies on the management of CVD, presently available therapy to reduce risk factors needs to be used together with individual tailoring of immunosuppressive therapy with the aim of reducing CVD in these patients.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
                Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC (São Paulo )
                October 2005
                : 85
                : suppl 5
                : 50-57
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de São Paulo Brazil
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