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      α-Lipoic acid improves abnormal behavior by mitigation of oxidative stress, inflammation, ferroptosis, and tauopathy in P301S Tau transgenic mice

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          Abstract

          Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) composed of Tau protein. α-Lipoic acid (LA) has been found to stabilize the cognitive function of AD patients, and animal study findings have confirmed its anti-amyloidogenic properties. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, especially with respect to the ability of LA to control Tau pathology and neuronal damage. Here, we found that LA supplementation effectively inhibited the hyperphosphorylation of Tau at several AD-related sites, accompanied by reduced cognitive decline in P301S Tau transgenic mice. Furthermore, we found that LA not only inhibited the activity of calpain1, which has been associated with tauopathy development and neurodegeneration via modulating the activity of several kinases, but also significantly decreased the calcium content of brain tissue in LA-treated mice. Next, we screened for various modes of neural cell death in the brain tissue of LA-treated mice. We found that caspase-dependent apoptosis was potently inhibited, whereas autophagy did not show significant changes after LA supplementation. Interestingly, Tau-induced iron overload, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation, which are involved in ferroptosis, were significantly blocked by LA administration. These results provide compelling evidence that LA plays a role in inhibiting Tau hyperphosphorylation and neuronal loss, including ferroptosis, through several pathways, suggesting that LA may be a potential therapy for tauopathies.

          Highlights

          • Hyperphosphorylated Tau induces iron overload, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation.

          • LA inhibits Tau hyperphosphorylation and neuronal loss including ferroptosis.

          • LA ameliorated tauopathy via modulating the activity of calpain1 and several kinases.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

          Advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related tauopathies, which are characterized by prominent CNS accumulations of fibrillar tau inclusions, are rapidly moving this previously underexplored disease pathway to centre stage for disease-modifying drug discovery efforts. However, controversies abound concerning whether or not the deleterious effects of tau pathologies result from toxic gains-of-function by pathological tau or from critical losses of normal tau function in the disease state. This Review summarizes the most recent advances in our knowledge of the mechanisms of tau-mediated neurodegeneration to forge an integrated concept of those tau-linked disease processes that drive the onset and progression of AD and related tauopathies.
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            Neuronal loss correlates with but exceeds neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease.

            To assess the relationship between dementia, neuronal loss, and neuropathological findings in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we counted the number of neurons, senile plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles in a high-order association cortex. We studied the superior temporal sulcus of 34 individuals with AD and 17 nondemented control subjects, using statistically unbiased, stereological counting techniques. The number of superior temporal sulcus neurons in nondemented control subjects was stable across the sixth to ninth decades. In AD, more than 50% of the neurons were lost. Both neuronal loss and neurofibrillary tangles increased in parallel with the duration and severity of illness, but the amount of neuronal loss exceeded by manyfold the amount of neurofibrillary tangles accumulated. In contrast to the correlation between neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal loss, the number of senile plaques and the percentage of the superior temporal sulcus that was covered by Abeta (amyloid burden) were not related to neuronal loss, number of neurofibrillary tangles, or duration of disease. Neither the amount nor the rate of neuronal loss in the superior temporal sulcus in AD correlated with apolipoprotein E genotype. These data suggest that neuronal loss in association areas such as the superior temporal sulcus contributes directly to cognitive impairment in AD.
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              RAS-RAF-MEK-dependent oxidative cell death involving voltage-dependent anion channels.

              Therapeutics that discriminate between the genetic makeup of normal cells and tumour cells are valuable for treating and understanding cancer. Small molecules with oncogene-selective lethality may reveal novel functions of oncoproteins and enable the creation of more selective drugs. Here we describe the mechanism of action of the selective anti-tumour agent erastin, involving the RAS-RAF-MEK signalling pathway functioning in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Erastin exhibits greater lethality in human tumour cells harbouring mutations in the oncogenes HRAS, KRAS or BRAF. Using affinity purification and mass spectrometry, we discovered that erastin acts through mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs)--a novel target for anti-cancer drugs. We show that erastin treatment of cells harbouring oncogenic RAS causes the appearance of oxidative species and subsequent death through an oxidative, non-apoptotic mechanism. RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of VDAC2 or VDAC3 caused resistance to erastin, implicating these two VDAC isoforms in the mechanism of action of erastin. Moreover, using purified mitochondria expressing a single VDAC isoform, we found that erastin alters the permeability of the outer mitochondrial membrane. Finally, using a radiolabelled analogue and a filter-binding assay, we show that erastin binds directly to VDAC2. These results demonstrate that ligands to VDAC proteins can induce non-apoptotic cell death selectively in some tumour cells harbouring activating mutations in the RAS-RAF-MEK pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Redox Biol
                Redox Biol
                Redox Biology
                Elsevier
                2213-2317
                07 November 2017
                April 2018
                07 November 2017
                : 14
                : 535-548
                Affiliations
                [a ]College of Life and Health Sciences, Northeastern University, No.195, Chuangxin Road, Hunnan District, Shenyang 110169, China
                [b ]China Medical University-The Queen's University of Belfast Joint College, No.77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang 110122, China
                Author notes
                Article
                S2213-2317(17)30693-6
                10.1016/j.redox.2017.11.001
                5684493
                29126071
                © 2017 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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                Research Paper

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