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      Normal-Tension Glaucoma Is Associated with Sleep Apnea Syndrome

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          Abstract

          Introduction: In normal-tension glaucoma, optic nerve damage occurs without elevated intraocular pressures, hence vascular and pathogenic mechanisms other than intraocular pressure effects have been postulated. However, the exact cause(s) remain unknown. We have looked for an association between normal-tension glaucoma and sleep apnea syndrome, a disease characterized by repetitive upper airway obstructions during sleep, inducing hypoxia and sleep disruption with the risk of late cardiovascular and neurological sequelae. Methods: We performed overnight polysomnography in 16 consecutive Caucasian patients with normal-tension glaucoma. The respiratory disturbance index (RDI) during night sleep was used to diagnose and grade obstructive sleep apnea. Patients with an RDI of 10 or more were diagnosed as having obstructive sleep apnea. Results: We observed the following prevalences of obstructive sleep apnea in normal-tension glaucoma patients: 0% (0 of 2) for the group of patients younger than 45 years, 50% (3 of 6) for the age group 45–64 years, and 63% (5 of 8) for the group older than 64 years. Prevalences in the middle and older age group were significantly higher than in a historic control group (p < 0.025 for both, binomial test). Conclusion: Normal-tension glaucoma patients constitute a high-risk population for sleep apnea syndrome. Therefore, they should be screened for sleep apnea syndrome, and, if necessary, be treated to avoid late cardiovascular and neurological sequelae.

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          Most cited references 4

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          High prevalence of glaucoma in patients with sleep apnea syndrome.

          To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), an entity characterized by repetitive upper airway obstructions during sleep, inducing hypoxia and sleep disruption with the risk of cardiovascular and neurologic sequelae. Cross-sectional study. A total of 114 white patients consecutively referred for polysomnographic evaluation of suspected SAS. Complete ophthalmologic examination, including computerized perimetry and simultaneous stereoscopic optic disc photographs. Spearman rank correlations between the respiratory disturbance index during night sleep (RDI), a value used to diagnose and grade SAS, and visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual field indices, presence or absence of glaucomatous optic disc changes, and diagnosis of glaucoma. Each correlation was controlled for age and body mass index. To compare proportions of patients harboring glaucoma, the binomial test was used. Sixty-nine (60.5%) of the 114 patients had an RDI > or =10, which indicates SAS. Three patients had primary open-angle glaucoma, and two had normal-tension glaucoma. All patients with glaucoma had SAS. The observed prevalence of glaucoma in patients with SAS (5 of 69, 7.2%) was significantly higher than expected in a white population (2%) (P = 0.01). The RDI correlated positively with IOP (P = 0.025), visual field loss variance (P = 0.03), glaucomatous optic disc changes (P = 0.001), and diagnosis of glaucoma (P = 0.01). Patients with SAS constitute a high-risk population for glaucoma and should therefore be screened for glaucoma.
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            The endothelium and cardiovascular disease--a complex relation.

             T Lüscher (1994)
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              Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Is Associated with Sleep Apnea Syndrome

              Introduction: The etiology of primary open-angle glaucoma remains unclear. Various risk factors, including vascular abnormalities, have been associated with this disease. Sleep-associated diseases, like sleep apnea syndrome, might also represent a risk factor. Sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive upper airway obstructions during sleep, inducing hypoxia and sleep disruption with the risk of cardiovascular and neurological sequelae. In this study, we determined the prevalence of sleep apnea syndrome in primary open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods: Overnight transcutaneous finger oximetry was performed in 30 consecutive patients having primary open-angle glaucoma. We assessed the oximetry disturbance index during night sleep, a parameter used to diagnose sleep apnea syndrome and to grade its severity. Results: Sleep apnea syndrome was more prevalent among primary open-angle glaucoma patients compared to normal historic controls of the same age and sex distribution (χ 2 = 9.35, d.f. = 3, p < 0.025). The oximetry disturbance index grade was significantly larger in the primary open-angle glaucoma group compared to normal controls (U = 3,352, p = 0.01). According to the oximetry disturbance index, 20% (6/30) of primary open-angle glaucoma patients had sleep apnea syndrome. Conclusion: Primary open-angle glaucoma is associated with sleep apnea syndrome. Early recognition and treatment of sleep apnea syndrome are important to avoid cardiovascular and neurological complications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                OPH
                Ophthalmologica
                10.1159/issn.0030-3755
                Ophthalmologica
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3755
                1423-0267
                2002
                June 2002
                12 June 2002
                : 216
                : 3
                : 180-184
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Neuro-Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Kantonsspital St.Gallen and Departments of bOphthalmology, cNeurology, and dPneumology, University of Bern, Inselspital, Switzerland
                Article
                59625 Ophthalmologica 2002;216:180–184
                10.1159/000059625
                12065854
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 26, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Paper · Travail original · Originalarbeit

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