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      New Approaches in Hypertension Management: a Review of Current and Developing Technologies and Their Potential Impact on Hypertension Care

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          Hypertension is a key risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Currently, around a third of people with hypertension are undiagnosed, and of those diagnosed, around half are not taking antihypertensive medications. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that high blood pressure directly or indirectly causes deaths of at least nine million people globally every year.

          Purpose of Review

          In this review, we examine how emerging technologies might support improved detection and management of hypertension not only in the wider population but also within special population groups such as the elderly, pregnant women, and those with atrial fibrillation.

          Recent Findings

          There is an emerging trend to empower patients to support hypertension screening and diagnosis, and several studies have shown the benefit of tele-monitoring, particularly when coupled with co-intervention, in improving the management of hypertension.

          Summary

          Novel technology including smartphones and Bluetooth®-enabled tele-monitoring are evolving as key players in hypertension management and offer particular promise within pregnancy and developing countries. The most pressing need is for these new technologies to be properly assessed and clinically validated prior to widespread implementation in the general population.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Prevalence of diagnosed atrial fibrillation in adults: national implications for rhythm management and stroke prevention: the AnTicoagulation and Risk Factors in Atrial Fibrillation (ATRIA) Study.

          Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in elderly persons and a potent risk factor for stroke. However, recent prevalence and projected future numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation are not well described. To estimate prevalence of atrial fibrillation and US national projections of the numbers of persons with atrial fibrillation through the year 2050. Cross-sectional study of adults aged 20 years or older who were enrolled in a large health maintenance organization in California and who had atrial fibrillation diagnosed between July 1, 1996, and December 31, 1997. Prevalence of atrial fibrillation in the study population of 1.89 million; projected number of persons in the United States with atrial fibrillation between 1995-2050. A total of 17 974 adults with diagnosed atrial fibrillation were identified during the study period; 45% were aged 75 years or older. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 0.95% (95% confidence interval, 0.94%-0.96%). Atrial fibrillation was more common in men than in women (1.1% vs 0.8%; P<.001). Prevalence increased from 0.1% among adults younger than 55 years to 9.0% in persons aged 80 years or older. Among persons aged 50 years or older, prevalence of atrial fibrillation was higher in whites than in blacks (2.2% vs 1.5%; P<.001). We estimate approximately 2.3 million US adults currently have atrial fibrillation. We project that this will increase to more than 5.6 million (lower bound, 5.0; upper bound, 6.3) by the year 2050, with more than 50% of affected individuals aged 80 years or older. Our study confirms that atrial fibrillation is common among older adults and provides a contemporary basis for estimates of prevalence in the United States. The number of patients with atrial fibrillation is likely to increase 2.5-fold during the next 50 years, reflecting the growing proportion of elderly individuals. Coordinated efforts are needed to face the increasing challenge of optimal stroke prevention and rhythm management in patients with atrial fibrillation.
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            Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, Short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context.

            There are 14 unconfounded randomised trials of antihypertensive drugs (chiefly diuretics or beta-blockers): total 37,000 individuals, mean treatment duration 5 years, mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) difference 5-6 mm Hg. In prospective observational studies, a long-term difference of 5-6 mm Hg in usual DBP is associated with about 35-40% less stroke and 20-25% less coronary heart disease (CHD). For those dying in the trials, the DBP difference had persisted only 2-3 years, yet an overview showed that vascular mortality was significantly reduced (2p less than 0.0002); non-vascular mortality appeared unchanged. Stroke was reduced by 42% SD 6 (95% confidence interval 35-50%; 289 vs 484 events, 2p less than 0.0001), suggesting that virtually all the epidemiologically expected stroke reduction appears rapidly. CHD was reduced by 14% SD 5 (95% CI 4-22%; 671 vs 771 events, 2p less than 0.01), suggesting that just over half the epidemiologically expected CHD reduction appears rapidly. Although this significant CHD reduction could well be worthwhile, its size remains indefinite for most circumstances (though beta-blockers after myocardial infarction are of substantial benefit). At present, therefore, a sufficiently high risk of stroke (perhaps because of age, blood pressure, or, in particular, history of cerebrovascular disease) may be the clearest indication for antihypertensive treatment.
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              Hypertension treatment and control in five European countries, Canada, and the United States.

              Levels of hypertension treatment and control have been noted to vary between Europe and North America, although direct comparisons with similar methods have not been undertaken. In this study, we sought to estimate the relative impact of hypertension treatment strategies in Germany, Sweden, England, Spain, Italy, Canada, and the United States by using sample surveys conducted in the 1990s. Hypertension was defined as a blood pressure of 160/95 mm Hg or 140/90 mm Hg, plus persons taking antihypertensive medication. "Controlled hypertension" was defined as a blood pressure less than threshold among persons taking antihypertensive medications. Among persons 35 to 64 years, 66% of hypertensives in the United States had their blood pressure controlled at 160/95 mm Hg, compared with 49% in Canada and 23% to 38% in Europe. Similar discrepancies were apparent at the 140/90 mm Hg threshold, at which 29% of hypertensives in the United States, 17% in Canada, and
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +44 (0)1865 617852 , Katherine.tucker@phc.ox.ac.uk
                Journal
                Curr Hypertens Rep
                Curr. Hypertens. Rep
                Current Hypertension Reports
                Springer US (New York )
                1522-6417
                1534-3111
                25 April 2019
                25 April 2019
                2019
                : 21
                : 6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Radcliffe Department of Medicine (Cardiovascular Division), , University of Oxford, ; Oxford, UK
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8948, GRID grid.4991.5, Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, , University of Oxford, ; Radcliffe Primary Care, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG UK
                Article
                949
                10.1007/s11906-019-0949-4
                6483962
                31025117
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: National Institute for Health Research
                Award ID: to come
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000272, National Institute for Health Research;
                Award ID: to come
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Implementation to Increase Blood Pressure Control: What Works? ( J Brettler and K Reynolds, Section Editors)
                Custom metadata
                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                self-monitoring, hypertension, smartphones, apps, tele-monitoring, self-management

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