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      E3 ubiquitin ligases: styles, structures and functions


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          E3 ubiquitin ligases are a large family of enzymes that join in a three-enzyme ubiquitination cascade together with ubiquitin activating enzyme E1 and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2. E3 ubiquitin ligases play an essential role in catalyzing the ubiquitination process and transferring ubiquitin protein to attach the lysine site of targeted substrates. Importantly, ubiquitination modification is involved in almost all life activities of eukaryotes. Thus, E3 ligases might be involved in regulating various biological processes and cellular responses to stress signal associated with cancer development. Thanks to their multi-functions, E3 ligases can be a promising target of cancer therapy. A deeper understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of E3 ligases in tumorigenesis will help to find new prognostic markers and accelerate the growth of anticancer therapeutic approaches. In general, we mainly introduce the classifications of E3 ligases and their important roles in cancer progression and therapeutic functions.

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          The Emerging Hallmarks of Cancer Metabolism.

          Tumorigenesis is dependent on the reprogramming of cellular metabolism as both direct and indirect consequence of oncogenic mutations. A common feature of cancer cell metabolism is the ability to acquire necessary nutrients from a frequently nutrient-poor environment and utilize these nutrients to both maintain viability and build new biomass. The alterations in intracellular and extracellular metabolites that can accompany cancer-associated metabolic reprogramming have profound effects on gene expression, cellular differentiation, and the tumor microenvironment. In this Perspective, we have organized known cancer-associated metabolic changes into six hallmarks: (1) deregulated uptake of glucose and amino acids, (2) use of opportunistic modes of nutrient acquisition, (3) use of glycolysis/TCA cycle intermediates for biosynthesis and NADPH production, (4) increased demand for nitrogen, (5) alterations in metabolite-driven gene regulation, and (6) metabolic interactions with the microenvironment. While few tumors display all six hallmarks, most display several. The specific hallmarks exhibited by an individual tumor may ultimately contribute to better tumor classification and aid in directing treatment.
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            The DNA-damage response in human biology and disease.

            The prime objective for every life form is to deliver its genetic material, intact and unchanged, to the next generation. This must be achieved despite constant assaults by endogenous and environmental agents on the DNA. To counter this threat, life has evolved several systems to detect DNA damage, signal its presence and mediate its repair. Such responses, which have an impact on a wide range of cellular events, are biologically significant because they prevent diverse human diseases. Our improving understanding of DNA-damage responses is providing new avenues for disease management.
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              Mdm2 promotes the rapid degradation of p53.

              The p53 tumour-suppressor protein exerts antiproliferative effects, including growth arrest and apoptosis, in response to various types of stress. The activity of p53 is abrogated by mutations that occur frequently in tumours, as well as by several viral and cellular proteins. The Mdm2 oncoprotein is a potent inhibitor of p53. Mdm2 binds the transcriptional activation domain of p53 and blocks its ability to regulate target genes and to exert antiproliferative effects. On the other hand, p53 activates the expression of the mdm2 gene in an autoregulatory feedback loop. The interval between p53 activation and consequent Mdm2 accumulation defines a time window during which p53 exerts its effects. We now report that Mdm2 also promotes the rapid degradation of p53 under conditions in which p53 is otherwise stabilized. This effect of Mdm2 requires binding of p53; moreover, a small domain of p53, encompassing the Mdm2-binding site, confers Mdm2-dependent detstabilization upon heterologous proteins. Raised amounts of Mdm2 strongly repress mutant p53 accumulation in tumour-derived cells. During recovery from DNA damage, maximal Mdm2 induction coincides with rapid p53 loss. We propose that the Mdm2-promoted degradation of p53 provides a new mechanism to ensure effective termination of the p53 signal.

                Author and article information

                Mol Biomed
                Mol Biomed
                Molecular Biomedicine
                Springer Singapore (Singapore )
                30 July 2021
                30 July 2021
                December 2021
                : 2
                : 23
                [1 ]GRID grid.411971.b, ISNI 0000 0000 9558 1426, Second Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Cancer Stem Cell, , Dalian Medical University, ; Dalian, 116044 China
                [2 ]GRID grid.411971.b, ISNI 0000 0000 9558 1426, Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital, , Dalian Medical University, ; Dalian, 116044 China
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 14 November 2020
                : 30 April 2021
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81830088
                Award Recipient :
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                © The Author(s) 2021

                e3 ligases,ubiquitination,26s proteasome degradation,cancer progression,therapeutics,protacs


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