Objective: To investigate the possible contribution of plasma cortisol and growth hormone (GH) as reflected by insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I)/insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) on insulin action in short-statured children. Methods:In this study, insulin resistance (HOMA) was determined in 34 normal short-statured (age 9.4 ± 3.5 years) and in 19 GH-deficient children (age 10.4 ± 2.2 years). HOMA was examined in relation to fasting plasma cortisol, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and in addition to birthweight and body mass index (BMI). Results: Birthweight was not correlated to insulin resistance. In GH-deficient children, BMI was significantly augmented and was associated with HOMA (p < 0.02). In both groups of patients, fasting plasma cortisol was related to HOMA (normal: r = 0.295, p < 0.05, GH-deficient: r = 0.495, p < 0.02). Only in normal short-statured children IGF-I (r = 0.338, p < 0.03) and IGFBP-3 (r = 0.493, p < 0.002) were associated with insulin resistance. Conclusion: The results indicated that at a young age cortisol contributed to insulin resistance in short-statured children. In normal short-statured children HOMA was associated with IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Possibly GH, a known cause of insulin resistance, contributed to HOMA as IGF-I and IGFBP-3 do not mediate insulin resistance but reflect growth hormone secretion. The results in GH-deficient children supported this conclusion as in the absence of GH insulin resistance was not associated with IGF-I/IGFBP-3.