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      Recurrent Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Serotype 12F in a Vaccinated Splenectomized Patient

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          Abstract

          This is the first case report of recurrent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), specifically, due to serotype 12F. The patient described here was vaccinated with the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) due to previous splenectomy, and an anti-pneumococcal IgG test concluded that she had responded sufficiently to vaccination. Still, she had a fulminate recurrent infection with PPV23 serotype 12F. We investigated the anti-pneumococcal IgG test, and it turned out that it is based on the geometric mean value of only 12 of the serotypes included in PPV23; 12F is none of them. The reason is that there are no titer cut-offs available for 11 of the PPV23 serotypes, including 12F, neither nationally nor internationally. Yet, this is not specified in the answer to the clinicians. This case illustrates the need for titer cut-offs for the remaining pneumococcal serotypes in available vaccines, in order to get a more accurate estimation of the vaccination coverage for the individual patient. Therefore, more research on this area is warranted, along with a discussion of whether the laboratory answers to the clinicians should be more detailed.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Pneumococcal Conjugate and Plain Polysaccharide Vaccines Have Divergent Effects on Antigen-Specific B Cells

          Background.  A 23-valent unconjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23vP), routinely administered at the age of 65, has limited effectiveness, and revaccination induces attenuated antibody responses. It is not known whether pneumococcal polysaccharide-protein conjugated vaccines (PCV), although highly effective in infants, offer any immunological advantages over 23vP in adults. Methods.  We immunized adults with schedules combining both PCV and 23vP and investigated B-cell responses to establish whether PCV7 (a 7-valent PCV) induced T-dependent responses in adults, to assess the role of memory B cells in 23vP-induced antibody hyporesponsiveness, and to identify the B-cell subtypes involved. Results.  A single dose of PCV7 induced significant increases in serotype-specific memory B-cell populations in peripheral blood indicating a T-dependent response. Conversely, immunization with 23vP resulted in a decrease in memory B-cell frequency. Furthermore, memory B-cell responses to subsequent immunization with PCV7, when given after 23vP, were attenuated. Notably, B1b cells, a subset important in protecting mice against pneumococci, were also depleted following immunization with 23vP in humans. Conclusions.  This study indicates that PCV7 may have an immunological advantage over 23vP in adults and that 23vP-induced depletion of memory and B1b-cell subsets may provide a basis for antibody hyporesponsiveness and the limited effectiveness of 23vP. Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN: 78768849.
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            Comparison of pneumococcal conjugate polysaccharide and free polysaccharide vaccines in elderly adults: conjugate vaccine elicits improved antibacterial immune responses and immunological memory.

            High functional antibody responses, establishment of immunologic memory, and unambiguous efficacy in infants suggest that an initial dose of conjugated pneumococcal polysaccharide (PnC) vaccine may be of value in a comprehensive adult immunization strategy. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of 7-valent PnC vaccine (7vPnC) with that of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in adults >/=70 years of age who had not been previously vaccinated with a pneumococcal vaccine. One year later, 7vPnC recipients received a booster dose of either 7vPnC (the 7vPnC/7vPnC group) or PPV (the 7vPnC/PPV group), and PPV recipients received a booster dose of 7vPnC (the PPV/7vPnC group). Immune responses were compared for each of the 7 serotypes common to both vaccines. Antipolysaccharide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody concentrations and opsonophagocytic assay titers to the initial dose of 7vPnC were significantly greater than those to the initial dose of PPV for 6 and 5 of 7 serotypes, respectively (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively). 7vPnC/7vPnC induced antibody responses that were similar to those after the first 7vPnC inoculation, and 7vPnC/PPV induced antibody responses that were similar to or greater than antibody responses after administration of PPV alone; PPV/7vPnC induced significantly lower antibacterial responses, compared with those induced by 7vPnC alone, for all serotypes (P < .05). In adults, an initial dose of 7vPnC is likely to elicit higher and potentially more effective levels of antipneumococcal antibodies than is PPV. In contrast with PPV, for which the induction of hyporesponsiveness was observed when used as a priming dose, 7vPnC elicits an immunological state that permits subsequent administration of 7vPnC or PPV to maintain functional antipolysaccharide antibody levels.
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              Combined schedules of pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines: is hyporesponsiveness an issue?

              Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children less than 5 years of age. Prevention of pneumococcal disease and death in children in the developing world through vaccination with recently developed, highly efficacious pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) is now possible. Schedules combining PCV with 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) have been studied and proposed as a means to expand disease protection against serotypes not included in the PCVs. Studies of group A and C meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine and repeated doses of PPV23 in adults and children have shown that a state of immune tolerance, or hyporesponsiveness, can develop to repeated polysaccharide vaccine antigen exposures. In this Review, we describe the evidence for and against this hyporesponsiveness and explore the possible mechanisms for such an occurrence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                Eur J Microbiol Immunol (Bp)
                EUJMI
                European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                27 January 2016
                March 2016
                : 6
                : 1
                : 81-84
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Microbiology, Regionshospitalet Viborg , Denmark
                [2 ] Department of Medicine, Regionshospitalet Viborg , Denmark
                [3 ] Department of Microbiological Diagnostics and Virology, Statens Serum Institut , Denmark
                Author notes
                * Søndre Skovvej 23, 1.th, 9000 Aalborg, Denmark; +45 28919565; blaabjerg.ak@ 123456gmail.com

                Conflicts of interest

                The authors do not have any conflicts of interest.

                Article
                10.1556/1886.2015.00051
                4838988
                27141317
                © The Author(s)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 20, Pages: 4
                Categories
                Case Study

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