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      Biogenic copper oxide nanoparticles from Bacillus coagulans induced reactive oxygen species generation and apoptotic and anti-metastatic activities in breast cancer cells

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          Abstract

          The present study examined the anticancer capabilities of Bacillus coagulans supernatant-produced copper oxide nanoparticles (BC-CuONPs) on MCF-7 and SKBR3 cancer cells. The X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential techniques were used to characterize BC-CuONPs. This study also investigated the cellular and molecular processes of NPs’ anti-proliferative and apoptotic properties on human breast cancer cells and compared them to the commercial pharmaceutical tamoxifen. The size of the spherical NP was from 5 to 47 nm with negative zeta potential. The MTT results showed the great cytotoxic effect of BC-CuONPs against breast cancer cells. The BC-CuONPs inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The up-regulation of BCL2-associated X ( BAX) , cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A ( P21), Caspase 3 ( CASP3), and Caspase 9 ( CASP9), the down-regulation of BCL2 apoptosis regulator ( BCL2), Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation results suggested that BC-CuONPs had a significant apoptotic impact when compared to the control. Scratch tests and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor gene ( VEGF) down-regulation demonstrated that BC-CuONPs had anti-metastatic activity. The cell cycle analysis and down-regulation of Cyclin D1 ( CCND1) and cyclin dependent kinase 4 ( CDK4) revealed that cancer cells were arrested in the sub-G1 phase. Finally, the results showed that the secondary metabolites in the supernatant of Bacillus coagulans could form CuONPs, and biogenic BC-CuONPs showed anti-metastasis and anticancer properties on breast cancer cells while having less adverse effects on normal cells. Therefore, the synthesized CuONPs using B. coagulans supernatant can be shown as a potential candidate for a new therapeutic strategy in cancer management.

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          Multiple functions of p21 in cell cycle, apoptosis and transcriptional regulation after DNA damage.

          An appropriate control over cell cycle progression depends on many factors. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 (also known as p21(WAF1/Cip1)) is one of these factors that promote cell cycle arrest in response to a variety of stimuli. The inhibitory effect of P21 on cell cycle progression correlates with its nuclear localization. P21 can be induced by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. Some other important functions attributed to p21 include transcriptional regulation, modulation or inhibition of apoptosis. These functions are largely dependent on direct p21/protein interactions and also on p21 subcellular localizations. In addition, p21 can play a role in DNA repair by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In this review, we will focus on the multiple functions of p21 in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and gene transcription after DNA damage and briefly discuss the pathways and factors that have critical roles in p21 expression and activity.
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            Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Cancer Progression: Molecular Mechanisms and Recent Advancements

            Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a pivotal role in biological processes and continuous ROS production in normal cells is controlled by the appropriate regulation between the silver lining of low and high ROS concentration mediated effects. Interestingly, ROS also dynamically influences the tumor microenvironment and is known to initiate cancer angiogenesis, metastasis, and survival at different concentrations. At moderate concentration, ROS activates the cancer cell survival signaling cascade involving mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1/2 (MAPK/ERK1/2), p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/ protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), which in turn activate the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). At high concentrations, ROS can cause cancer cell apoptosis. Hence, it critically depends upon the ROS levels, to either augment tumorigenesis or lead to apoptosis. The major issue is targeting the dual actions of ROS effectively with respect to the concentration bias, which needs to be monitored carefully to impede tumor angiogenesis and metastasis for ROS to serve as potential therapeutic targets exogenously/endogenously. Overall, additional research is required to comprehend the potential of ROS as an effective anti-tumor modality and therapeutic target for treating malignancies.
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              Copper oxide nanoparticles are highly toxic: a comparison between metal oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes.

              Since the manufacture and use of nanoparticles are increasing, humans are more likely to be exposed occupationally or via consumer products and the environment. However, so far toxicity data for most manufactured nanoparticles are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare different nanoparticles and nanotubes regarding cytotoxicity and ability to cause DNA damage and oxidative stress. The study was focused on different metal oxide particles (CuO, TiO2, ZnO, CuZnFe2O4, Fe3O4, Fe2O3), and the toxicity was compared to that of carbon nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The human lung epithelial cell line A549 was exposed to the particles, and cytotoxicity was analyzed using trypan blue staining. DNA damage and oxidative lesions were determined using the comet assay, and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using the oxidation-sensitive fluoroprobe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA). The results showed that there was a high variation among different nanoparticles concerning their ability to cause toxic effects. CuO nanoparticles were most potent regarding cytotoxicity and DNA damage. The toxicity was likely not explained by Cu ions released to the cell medium. These particles also caused oxidative lesions and were the only particles that induced an almost significant increase (p = 0.058) in intracellular ROS. ZnO showed effects on cell viability as well as DNA damage, whereas the TiO2 particles (a mix of rutile and anatase) only caused DNA damage. For iron oxide particles (Fe3O4, Fe2O3), no or low toxicity was observed, but CuZnFe2O4 particles were rather potent in inducing DNA lesions. Finally, the carbon nanotubes showed cytotoxic effects and caused DNA damage in the lowest dose tested. The effects were not explained by soluble metal impurities. In conclusion, this study highlights the in vitro toxicity of CuO nanoparticles.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                farzanehtafvizi54@gmail.com , Farzaneh.Tafvizi@iau.ac.ir
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                24 February 2023
                24 February 2023
                2023
                : 13
                : 3256
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.460834.d, ISNI 0000 0004 0417 6855, Department of Biology, Parand Branch, , Islamic Azad University, ; Parand, Iran
                [2 ]GRID grid.444830.f, ISNI 0000 0004 0384 871X, Cellular and Molecular Research Center, , Qom University of Medical Sciences, ; Qom, Iran
                [3 ]GRID grid.411465.3, ISNI 0000 0004 0367 0851, Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Arak Branch, , Islamic Azad University, ; Arak, Iran
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3595-5021
                Article
                30436
                10.1038/s41598-023-30436-y
                9958044
                36828883
                c0ee23f4-30f9-4fa8-bec5-b8a14d967ba4
                © The Author(s) 2023

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 20 October 2022
                : 23 February 2023
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                © The Author(s) 2023

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                cell biology,nanoscience and technology
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                cell biology, nanoscience and technology

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