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      New insights into the pathogenesis and nonsurgical management of Graves orbitopathy

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          Abstract

          Graves orbitopathy, also known as thyroid eye disease or thyroid-associated orbitopathy, is visually disabling, cosmetically disfiguring and has a substantial negative impact on a patient's quality of life. There is increasing awareness of the need for early diagnosis and rapid specialist input from endocrinologists and ophthalmologists. Glucocorticoids are the mainstay of treatment; however, recurrence occurs frequently once these are withdrawn. Furthermore, in >60% of cases, normal orbital anatomy is not restored, and skilled rehabilitative surgery is required. Clinical trials have shown that considerable benefit can be derived from the addition of antiproliferative agents (such as mycophenolate or azathioprine) in preventing deterioration after steroid cessation. In addition, targeted biologic therapies have shown promise, including teprotumumab, which reduces proptosis, rituximab (anti-CD20), which reduces inflammation, and tocilizumab, which potentially benefits both of these parameters. Other strategies such as orbital radiotherapy have had their widespread role in combination therapy called into question. The pathophysiology of Graves orbitopathy has also been revised with identification of new potential therapeutic targets. In this Review we provide an up-to-date overview of the field, outline the optimal management of Graves orbitopathy and summarize the research developments in this area to highlight future research questions and direct future clinical trials.

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          Most cited references 120

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          Developmental origin of fat: tracking obesity to its source.

          The development of obesity not only depends on the balance between food intake and caloric utilization but also on the balance between white adipose tissue, which is the primary site of energy storage, and brown adipose tissue, which is specialized for energy expenditure. In addition, some sites of white fat storage in the body are more closely linked than others to the metabolic complications of obesity, such as diabetes. In this Review, we consider how the developmental origins of fat contribute to its physiological, cellular, and molecular heterogeneity and explore how these factors may play a role in the growing epidemic of obesity.
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            Graves' ophthalmopathy.

             S Bahn (2010)
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              The 2016 European Thyroid Association/European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy Guidelines for the Management of Graves' Orbitopathy

               Luigi Bartalena (corresponding) ,  Lelio Baldeschi,  Kostas G. Boboridis (2016)
              Graves' orbitopathy (GO) is the main extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves' disease, though severe forms are rare. Management of GO is often suboptimal, largely because available treatments do not target pathogenic mechanisms of the disease. Treatment should rely on a thorough assessment of the activity and severity of GO and its impact on the patient's quality of life. Local measures (artificial tears, ointments and dark glasses) and control of risk factors for progression (smoking and thyroid dysfunction) are recommended for all patients. In mild GO, a watchful strategy is usually sufficient, but a 6-month course of selenium supplementation is effective in improving mild manifestations and preventing progression to more severe forms. High-dose glucocorticoids (GCs), preferably via the intravenous route, are the first line of treatment for moderate-to-severe and active GO. The optimal cumulative dose appears to be 4.5-5 g of methylprednisolone, but higher doses (up to 8 g) can be used for more severe forms. Shared decision-making is recommended for selecting second-line treatments, including a second course of intravenous GCs, oral GCs combined with orbital radiotherapy or cyclosporine, rituximab or watchful waiting. Rehabilitative treatment (orbital decompression surgery, squint surgery or eyelid surgery) is needed in the majority of patients when GO has been conservatively managed and inactivated by immunosuppressive treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Endocrinology
                Nat Rev Endocrinol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1759-5029
                1759-5037
                December 30 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41574-019-0305-4
                31889140
                © 2019

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