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German Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED): Reliability, Validity, and Cross-Informant Agreement in a Clinical Sample

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      BackgroundThe psychometric properties and cross-informant agreement of a German translation of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) were assessed in a clinical sampleMethods102 children and adolescents in outpatient psychotherapy and their parents filled out the SCARED and Youth Self Report/Child Behaviour Checklist (YSR/CBCL).ResultsThe German SCARED showed good internal consistency for both parent and self-report version, and proved to be convergently and discriminantly valid when compared with YSR/CBCL scales. Cross-informant agreement was moderate with children reporting both a larger number as well as higher severity of anxiety symptoms than their parents.ConclusionIn conclusion, the German SCARED is a valid and reliable anxiety scale and may be used in a clinical setting

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      This longitudinal community study assessed the prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders from age 9 through 16 years and examined homotypic and heterotypic continuity. A representative population sample of 1420 children aged 9 to 13 years at intake were assessed annually for DSM-IV disorders until age 16 years. Although 3-month prevalence of any disorder averaged 13.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.7%-15.0%), during the study period 36.7% of participants (31% of girls and 42% of boys) had at least 1 psychiatric disorder. Some disorders (social anxiety, panic, depression, and substance abuse) increased in prevalence, whereas others, including separation anxiety disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), decreased. Lagged analyses showed that children with a history of psychiatric disorder were 3 times more likely than those with no previous disorder to have a diagnosis at any subsequent wave (odds ratio, 3.7; 95% CI, 2.9-4.9; P<.001). Risk from a previous diagnosis was high among both girls and boys, but it was significantly higher among girls. Continuity of the same disorder (homotypic) was significant for all disorders except specific phobias. Continuity from one diagnosis to another (heterotypic) was significant from depression to anxiety and anxiety to depression, from ADHD to oppositional defiant disorder, and from anxiety and conduct disorder to substance abuse. Almost all the heterotypic continuity was seen in girls. The risk of having at least 1 psychiatric disorder by age 16 years is much higher than point estimates would suggest. Concurrent comorbidity and homotypic and heterotypic continuity are more marked in girls than in boys.
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           Susan Spence (1998)
          The Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) is a child self-report measure designed to evaluate symptoms relating to separation anxiety, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic-agoraphobia, generalized anxiety and fears of physical injury. The results of confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses supported six factors consistent with the hypothesized diagnostic categories. There was support also for a model in which the 1st-order factors loaded significantly on a single 2nd-order factor of anxiety in general. The internal consistency of the total score and subscales was high and 6 month test-retest reliability was acceptable. The SCAS correlated strongly with a frequently used child self-report measure of anxiety. Comparisons between clinically anxious and control children showed significant differences in total SCAS scores, with subscale scores reflecting the type of presenting anxiety disorder of the clinical samples.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg, Germany
            [2 ]Department of Neuropsychiatry, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
            Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health
            Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health
            BioMed Central
            30 June 2010
            : 4
            : 19
            Copyright ©2010 Weitkamp et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


            Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry


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