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      Hematologic malignancies and Li–Fraumeni syndrome

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          Abstract

          Li–Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is an autosomal dominant condition associated with a high risk of a broad range of childhood- and adult-onset cancers. LFS is related to germline mutations of the tumor-suppressor gene TP53. The most common reported leukemia associated with LFS is hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but myeloid malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are also reported, often in the setting of therapy-related disease. We reviewed the clinicopathologic characteristics including cytogenetics and molecular analysis for seven adult patients with LFS and hematologic malignancies evaluated at the Hereditary Hematologic Malignancy Clinic (HHMC) at MD Anderson Cancer Center. We present this LFS review series to increase awareness of LFS for the appropriate diagnosis of both patients and potentially affected relatives, as well as provide experience with patient outcomes in this difficult to treat population.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Clinical application and proposal for modification of the International Working Group (IWG) response criteria in myelodysplasia.

          The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are heterogeneous with respect to clinical characteristics, pathologic features, and cytogenetic abnormalities. This heterogeneity is a challenge for evaluating response to treatment. Therapeutic trials in MDS have used various criteria to assess results, making cross-study comparisons problematic. In 2000, an International Working Group (IWG) proposed standardized response criteria for evaluating clinically significant responses in MDS. These criteria included measures of alteration in the natural history of disease, hematologic improvement, cytogenetic response, and improvement in health-related quality of life. The relevance of the response criteria has now been validated prospectively in MDS clinical trials, and they have gained acceptance in research studies and in clinical practice. Because limitations of the IWG criteria have surfaced, based on practical and reported experience, some modifications were warranted. In this report, we present recommendations for revisions of some of the initial criteria.
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            TP53 alterations in acute myeloid leukemia with complex karyotype correlate with specific copy number alterations, monosomal karyotype, and dismal outcome.

            To assess the frequency of TP53 alterations and their correlation with other genetic changes and outcome in acute myeloid leukemia with complex karyotype (CK-AML), we performed integrative analysis using TP53 mutational screening and array-based genomic profiling in 234 CK-AMLs. TP53 mutations were found in 141 of 234 (60%) and TP53 losses were identified in 94 of 234 (40%) CK-AMLs; in total, 164 of 234 (70%) cases had TP53 alterations. TP53-altered CK-AML were characterized by a higher degree of genomic complexity (aberrations per case, 14.30 vs 6.16; P < .0001) and by a higher frequency of specific copy number alterations, such as -5/5q-, -7/7q-, -16/16q-, -18/18q-, +1/+1p, and +11/+11q/amp11q13∼25; among CK-AMLs, TP53-altered more frequently exhibited a monosomal karyotype (MK). Patients with TP53 alterations were older and had significantly lower complete remission rates, inferior event-free, relapse-free, and overall survival. In multivariable analysis for overall survival, TP53 alterations, white blood cell counts, and age were the only significant factors. In conclusion, TP53 is the most frequently known altered gene in CK-AML. TP53 alterations are associated with older age, genomic complexity, specific DNA copy number alterations, MK, and dismal outcome. In multivariable analysis, TP53 alteration is the most important prognostic factor in CK-AML, outweighing all other variables, including the MK category.
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              A cancer family syndrome in twenty-four kindreds.

              A search of the Cancer Family Registry of the National Cancer Institute revealed 24 kindreds with the syndrome of sarcoma, breast carcinoma, and other neoplasms in young patients. Cancer developed in an autosomal dominant pattern in 151 blood relatives, 119 (79%) of whom were affected before 45 years of age. These young patients had a total of 50 bone and soft tissue sarcomas of diverse histological subtypes and 28 breast cancers. Additional features of the syndrome included an excess of brain tumors (14 cases), leukemia (9 cases), and adrenocortical carcinoma (4 cases) before age 45 years. These neoplasms also accounted for 73% of the multiple primary cancers occurring in 15 family members. Six of these patients had second cancers linked to radiotherapy. The diversity of tumor types in this syndrome suggests pathogenetic mechanisms which differ from hereditary cancers arising in single organs or tissues. The syndrome is presently diagnosed on clinical grounds; laboratory markers are needed to identify high-risk individuals and families and to provide insights into susceptibility mechanisms that may be shared by a wide variety of cancers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud
                Cold Spring Harb Mol Case Stud
                cshmcs
                cshmcs
                cshmcs
                Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
                Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
                2373-2873
                February 2019
                : 5
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77005, USA;
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Cancer Genetics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77005, USA;
                [3 ]Department of Hematopathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77005, USA;
                [4 ]Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77005, USA;
                [5 ]Department of Genetics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77005, USA
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: cdinardo@ 123456mdanderson.org
                Article
                MCS003210Swa
                10.1101/mcs.a003210
                6371746
                30709875

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits reuse and redistribution, except for commercial purposes, provided that the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 14
                Product
                Categories
                Research Article

                multiple lineage myelodysplasia, leukemia

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