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      On the marine free-living copepods off Brazil

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          Translated abstract

          Poucos autores dedicaram-se ao estudo de copépodos da região tropical e subtropical do Atlântico Sul ocidental. Alguns autores estudaram águas costeiras e salobras. As águas do alto mar e da plataforma continental foram estudadas pouco ou nada, sob o ponto de vista dos copépodos, pelas grandes expedições. O presente trabalho é um estudo comparativo da fauna de copépodos nestas diferentes águas, tendo distinguido os seguintes habitats: água tropical, água subtropical de superfície, água de plataforma quente superficial, água de plataforma fria de profundidade e águas costeiras. Estudou-se ainda alguns parâmetros característicos do ambiente em que vive cada uma das espécies de copépodos assinalada em nossas águas e procurou-se analisar as aparentes discrepâncias na ocorrência destas espécies em outros ambientes, assim como a homogeneidade das associações características das regiões tropical, subtropical, costeira e de plataforma em todos os oceanos do mundo. Algumas características morfológicas de certas espécies foram assinaladas e a variedade nova "cryophyla" de Acartia tonsa descrita.

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          Most cited references 138

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          The shelf and coastal waters off southern Brazil

          The data collected on three oceanographic cruises undertaken in 1956 indicate that the main branch of the Brazil Current flows southwards along the continental slope, where it reaches maximum velocity, and further, that a well defined limit is found between the warm and saline tropical water from the north and that situated over the central part of the shelf. This is especially the case during the summer months (October-March). Below the Brazil Current a water layer of lower salinity and temperature is found. This water mass is formed near the western extremity of the Subtropical Convergence where it sinks and flows northwards to reappear near or at the surface in an area situated between the lighter, south-flowing, tropical water, and the coastal water. Such a distribution of density across the Current is to be expected in view of the dynamics of ocean currents. There are, however, evidences which indicate the occurrence of upwelling from moderate depths, in particular near Cabo Frio where the prevailing winds from NE drive the surface waters offshore. It is further suggested that the upwelling is maintained by a thermohaline mechanism as the density of the cold and low salinity water is decreased by heating from solar radiation. In order to maintain dynamic stability, the heated water must consequently flow out of the area and be replaced by water from below which in turn suffers the same decrease of density, and so on. Such mechanism might, together with prevailing winds, be responsible for permanent or periodic upwelling near other regions in the tropical and subtropical zone of the oceans where salinity decreases with depth.
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            The shelf and coastal waters off Southern Brazil

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              Various forms of chemically induced liver injury and their detection by diagnostic procedures.

               H Zimmerman (1976)
              A large number of chemical agents, administered for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes, can produce various types of hepatic injury by several mechanisms. Some agents are intrinsically hepatotoxic, and others produce hepatic injury only in the rare, uniquely susceptible individual. Idiosyncrasy of the host is the mechanism for most types of drug-induced hepatic injury. It may reflect allergy to the drug or a metabolic aberation of the host permitting the accumulation of hepatotoxic metabolites. The syndromes of hepatic disease produced by drugs have been classified hepatocellular, hepatocanalicular, mixed and canalicular. Measurement of serum enzyme activities has provided a powerful tool for studies of hepatotoxicity. Their measurement requires awareness of relative specificity, knowledge of the mechanisms involved, and knowledge of the relationship between known hepatotoxic states and elevated enzyme activities.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bioce
                Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico
                Bol. Inst. Oceanogr.
                Instituto Oceanográfico da Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo )
                0373-5524
                1963
                : 13
                : 1
                : 03-142
                Article
                S0373-55241963000100001
                10.1590/S0373-55241963000100001

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                OCEANOGRAPHY

                Oceanography & Hydrology

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