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      Physiological mechanisms of vascular response induced by shear stress and effect of exercise in systemic and placental circulation

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          Abstract

          Physiological vascular function regulation is essential for cardiovascular health and depends on adequate control of molecular mechanisms triggered by endothelial cells in response to mechanical and chemical stimuli induced by blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction is one of the main risk factors of cardiovascular pathology, where the imbalance between the synthesis of vasodilator and vasoconstrictor molecules is common in the development of vascular disorders in systemic and placental circulation. In the placenta, an organ without autonomic innervations, the local control of vascular tone is critical for maintenance of fetal growth and mechanisms that underlie shear stress response induced by blood flow are essential during pregnancy. In this field, shear stress induced by moderate exercise is one of the most important mechanisms to improve vascular function through nitric oxide synthesis and stimulation of mechanical response of endothelial cells triggered by ion channels, caveolae, endothelial NO synthase, and vascular endothelial growth factor, among others. The demand for oxygen and nutrients by tissues and organs, especially in placentation and pregnancy, determines blood flow parameters, and physiological adaptations of vascular beds for covering metabolic requirements. In this regard, moderate exercise versus sedentarism shows potential benefits for improving vascular function associated with the enhancement of molecular mechanisms induced by shear stress. In this review, we collect evidence about molecular bases of physiological response to shear stress in order to highlight the relevance of moderate exercise-training for vascular health in adult and fetal life.

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          Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor system: physiological functions in angiogenesis and pathological roles in various diseases.

          Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) belong to the platelet-derived growth factor supergene family, and they play central roles in the regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. VEGF-A, the major factor for angiogenesis, binds to two tyrosine kinase (TK) receptors, VEGFR-1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR-2 (KDR/Flk-1), and regulates endothelial cell proliferation, migration, vascular permeability, secretion and other endothelial functions. VEGFR-2 exhibits a strong TK activity towards pro-angiogenic signals, whereas the soluble VEGFR-1 (sFlt-1) functions as an endogenous VEGF inhibitor. sFlt-1 is abnormally overexpressed in the placenta of preeclampsia patients, resulting in the major symptoms of the disease due to abnormal trapping of VEGFs. The VEGF-VEGFR system is crucial for tumour angiogenesis, and anti-VEGF-VEGFR molecules are now widely used in the clinical field to treat cancer patients. The efficacy of these molecules in prolonging the overall survival of patients has been established; however, some cancers do not respond well and reduced tumour sensitivity to anti-VEGF signals may occur after long-term treatment. The molecular basis of tumour refractoriness should be determined to improve anti-angiogenic therapy.
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            Association of diet, exercise, and smoking modification with risk of early cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndromes.

            Although preventive drug therapy is a priority after acute coronary syndrome, less is known about adherence to behavioral recommendations. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of adherence to behavioral recommendations in the short term on risk of cardiovascular events. The study population included 18 809 patients from 41 countries enrolled in the Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS) 5 randomized clinical trial. At the 30-day follow-up, patients reported adherence to diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation. Cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality were documented to 6 months. About one third of smokers persisted in smoking. Adherence to neither diet nor exercise recommendations was reported by 28.5%, adherence to either diet or exercise by 41.6%, and adherence to both by 29.9%. In contrast, 96.1% of subjects reported antiplatelet use, 78.9% reported statin use, and 72.4% reported angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker use. Quitting smoking was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction compared with persistent smoking (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.89). Diet and exercise adherence was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction compared with nonadherence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.69). Patients who reported persistent smoking and nonadherence to diet and exercise had a 3.8-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 5.9) increased risk of myocardial infarction/stroke/death compared with never smokers who modified diet and exercise. Adherence to behavioral advice (diet, exercise, and smoking cessation) after acute coronary syndrome was associated with a substantially lower risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. These findings suggest that behavioral modification should be given priority similar to other preventive medications immediately after acute coronary syndrome. Clinical Trial Registration Information- URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00139815. Unique identifier: NCT00139815.
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              Endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus

              Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in the presence of intensive glycemic control. Substantial clinical and experimental evidence suggest that both diabetes and insulin resistance cause a combination of endothelial dysfunctions, which may diminish the anti-atherogenic role of the vascular endothelium. Both insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction appear to precede the development of overt hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, in patients with diabetes or insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction may be a critical early target for preventing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Microalbuminuria is now considered to be an atherosclerotic risk factor and predicts future cardiovascular disease risk in diabetic patients, in elderly patients, as well as in the general population. It has been implicated as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and premature cardiovascular mortality for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as for patients with essential hypertension. A complete biochemical understanding of the mechanisms by which hyperglycemia causes vascular functional and structural changes associated with the diabetic milieu still eludes us. In recent years, the numerous biochemical and metabolic pathways postulated to have a causal role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease have been distilled into several unifying hypotheses. The role of chronic hyperglycemia in the development of diabetic microvascular complications and in neuropathy has been clearly established. However, the biochemical or cellular links between elevated blood glucose levels, and the vascular lesions remain incompletely understood. A number of trials have demonstrated that statins therapy as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors is associated with improvements in endothelial function in diabetes. Although antioxidants provide short-term improvement of endothelial function in humans, all studies of the effectiveness of preventive antioxidant therapy have been disappointing. Control of hyperglycemia thus remains the best way to improve endothelial function and to prevent atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular complications of diabetes. In the present review we provide the up to date details on this subject.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-9812
                16 September 2014
                2014
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Faculty of Health Science, Universidad San Sebastián Concepción, Chile
                [2] 2PhD Program in Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de La Frontera Temuco, Chile
                [3] 3Vascular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Concepción Concepción, Chile
                [4] 4Group of Research and Innovation in Vascular Health Chillán, Chile
                Author notes

                Edited by: Carlos Alonso Escudero, Universidad del Bio Bio, Chile

                Reviewed by: Giuseppe D’Avenio, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Italy; Emilio A. Herrera, Universidad de Chile, Chile

                *Correspondence: Marcelo González, Vascular Physiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Barrio Universitario s/n, Concepción, Chile e-mail: mgonzalezo@ 123456udec.cl

                This article was submitted to Cardiovascular and Smooth Muscle Pharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology.

                Article
                10.3389/fphar.2014.00209
                4165280
                c1136991-9c09-4f63-8a3a-268dfc640028
                Copyright © 2014 Rodríguez and González.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 0, Equations: 3, References: 118, Pages: 11, Words: 0
                Categories
                Pharmacology
                Review Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                endothelial dysfunction,shear stress,placental circulation,exercise,nitric oxide

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