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      Is preoperative hypocholesterolemia a risk factor for severe postoperative pain? Analysis of 1,944 patients after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery

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          This study aimed to identify the effect of preoperative serum total cholesterol on postoperative pain outcome in patients who had undergone laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery.


          We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer who had undergone laparoscopic colorectal surgery from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2017, to identify the relationship of total cholesterol levels within a month prior to surgery with the numeric rating scale (NRS) scores and total opioid consumption on postoperative days (PODs) 0–2.


          We included 1,944 patients. No significant correlations were observed between total cholesterol and the NRS (POD 0), NRS (POD 1), and oral morphine equivalents (PODs 0–2) ( P>0.05). There was no significant difference between the low (<160 mg/dL), medium (160–199 mg/dL), and high (≥200 mg/dL) groups in NRS scores on PODs 0, 1, or 2 ( P>0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant association in multivariate linear regression analysis for postoperative opioid consumption according to preoperative serum total cholesterol level (coefficient 0.08, 95% CI −0.01 to 0.18, P=0.81).


          This study showed that there was no meaningful association between preoperative total cholesterol level and postoperative pain outcome after laparoscopic colorectal cancer surgery.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Open versus laparoscopic surgery for mid or low rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (COREAN trial): short-term outcomes of an open-label randomised controlled trial.

          The safety and short-term efficacy of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy has not been demonstrated. The aim of the randomised Comparison of Open versus laparoscopic surgery for mid and low REctal cancer After Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (COREAN) trial was to compare open surgery with laparoscopic surgery for mid or low rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Between April 4, 2006, and Aug 26, 2009, patients with cT3N0-2 mid or low rectal cancer without distant metastasis after preoperative chemoradiotherapy were enrolled at three tertiary-referral hospitals. Patients were randomised 1:1 to receive either open surgery (n=170) or laparoscopic surgery (n=170), stratified according to sex and preoperative chemotherapy regimen. Short-term outcomes assessed were involvement of the circumferential resection margin, macroscopic quality of the total mesorectal excision specimen, number of harvested lymph nodes, recovery of bowel function, perioperative morbidity, postoperative pain, and quality of life. Analyses were based on the intention-to-treat population. Patients continue to be followed up for the primary outcome (3-year disease-free survival). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00470951. Two patients (1.2%) in the laparoscopic group were converted to open surgery, but were included in the laparoscopic group for analyses. Estimated blood loss was less in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (median 217.5 mL [150.0-400.0] in the open group vs 200.0 mL [100.0-300.0] in the laparoscopic group, p=0.006), although surgery time was longer in the laparoscopic group (mean 244.9 min [SD 75.4] vs 197.0 min [62.9], p<0.0001). Involvement of the circumferential resection margin, macroscopic quality of the total mesorectal excision specimen, number of harvested lymph nodes, and perioperative morbidity did not differ between the two groups. The laparoscopic surgery group showed earlier recovery of bowel function than the open surgery group (time to pass first flatus, median 38.5 h [23.0-53.0] vs 60.0 h [43.0-73.0], p<0.0001; time to resume a normal diet, 85.0 h [66.0-95.0] vs 93.0 h [86.0-121.0], p<0.0001; time to first defecation, 96.5 h [70.0-125.0] vs 123 h [94.0-156.0], p<0.0001). The total amount of morphine used was less in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (median 107.2 mg [80.0-150.0] vs 156.9 mg [117.0-185.2], p<0.0001). 3 months after proctectomy or ileostomy takedown, the laparoscopic group showed better physical functioning score than the open group (0.501 [n=122] vs -4.970 [n=128], p=0.0073), less fatigue (-5.659 [n=122] vs 0.098 [n=129], p=0.0206), and fewer micturition (-2.583 [n=122] vs 4.725 [n=129], p=0.0002), gastrointestinal (-0.400 [n=122] vs 4.331 [n=129], p=0.0102), and defecation problems (0.535 [n=103] vs 5.327 [n=99], p=0.0184) in repeated measures analysis of covariance, adjusted for baseline values. Laparoscopic surgery after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for mid or low rectal cancer is safe and has short-term benefits compared with open surgery; the quality of oncological resection was equivalent. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Efficacy and safety of patient-controlled opioid analgesia for acute postoperative pain. A quantitative systematic review.

            The usefulness of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with opioids for postoperative analgesia is not well defined. We systematically searched (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, bibliographies, any language, to January 2000) for randomised trials comparing opioid-based PCA with the same opioid given intramuscularly, intravenously, or subcutaneously. Weighted mean differences (WMD) for continuous data, relative risks (RR) and numbers-needed-to-treat (NNT) for dichotomous data were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI) using fixed and random effects models. Data from 32 trials were analysed: 22 (1139 patients) were with morphine, five (682) with pethidine, three (184) with piritramide, one (47) with nalbuphine and one (20) with tramadol. In three morphine and one pethidine trial (352 patients), more patients preferred PCA (89.7% vs. 65.8%, RR 1.41 (95%CI 1.11 to 1.80), NNT 4.2). Combined dichotomous data on pain intensity and relief, and the need for rescue analgesics from eight morphine, one pethidine, one piritramide, and one nalbuphine trial (691 patients), were in favour of PCA (RR 1.22 (1.00 to 1.50), NNT 8). In two morphine trials (152), pulmonary complications were more frequently prevented with PCA (100% vs. 93.3%, RR 1.07 (1.01 to 1.14), NNT 15). There was equivalence for cumulative opioid consumption, pain scores, duration of hospital stay, and opioid-related adverse effects. These trials provide some evidence that in the postoperative pain setting, PCA with opioids, compared with conventional opioid treatment, improve analgesia and decrease the risk of pulmonary complications, and that patients prefer them.
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              G-protein coupled receptors in lipid rafts and caveolae: how, when and why do they go there?

               B Chini,  M Parenti (2004)
              This review describes the advances in our understanding of the role of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) localisation in membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts and caveolae. The growing interest in these specialised regions is due to the recognition that they are involved in the regulation of a number of cell functions, including the fine-tuning of various signalling molecules. As a number of GPCRs have been found to be enriched in lipid rafts and/or caveolae by means of different experimental approaches, we first discuss the pitfalls and uncertainties related to the use of these different procedures. We then analyse the addressing signals that drive and/or stabilise GPCRs in lipid rafts and caveolae, and explore the role of rafts/caveolae in regulating GPCR trafficking, particularly in receptor exo- and endocytosis. Finally, we review the growing evidence that lipid rafts and caveolae participate in the regulation of GPCR signalling by affecting both signalling selectivity and coupling efficacy.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                01 June 2018
                : 11
                : 1057-1065
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital
                [2 ]Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul, South Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: In-Ae Song, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, 166 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam, Gyeonggi 463 707, South Korea, Tel +82 31 787 7499, Fax +82 31 787 4063, Email songoficu@ 123456outlook.kr
                © 2018 Oh et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                laparoscopy, cholesterol, rectum, colon, analgesia


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