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      Interrogation of the Tricuspid Annulus by Doppler Tissue Imaging in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Hypertension: Implications for the Assessment of Right-Ventricular Systolic and Diastolic Function


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          Background: Chronic pulmonary hypertension (CPHT) has a great impact on both right-ventricular (RV) systolic and diastolic properties and the assessment of those properties is not always feasible by traditional echocardiographic examination. Doppler tissue imaging (DTI) interrogation of the tricuspid annulus (TA) identifies the pattern of TA motion (TAM) and can help to assess RV function when other methods are not feasible. Aims: To determine RV systolic and diastolic function in patients with CPHT using DTI parameters of the TA. Methods: Eighty-seven patients with CPHT and 90 normal controls were studied. DTI parameters were measured including early diastolic, late diastolic and systolic velocities and time velocity integrals (TVI) of the TAM at both its lateral and medial aspect. Results: Early diastolic and systolic velocities, the ratio of early to late diastolic velocities and TVI of TAM at both lateral and medial aspects were significantly decreased in patients with CPHT compared to controls. No significant differences were seen in late diastolic velocities and TVI in both groups. Systolic velocity of the TAM at both its lateral and medial aspects significantly correlated with RV systolic function as measured by fractional RV area change. Conclusions: DTI of the TAM can be used to assess RV systolic and diastolic properties in patients with CPHT.

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          Normal regional right ventricular function and its change with age: a Doppler myocardial imaging study.

          Doppler Myocardial Imaging (DMI) is a new technique currently being studied for the assessment of regional systolic and diastolic left ventricular (LV) function. No normal values or data on age-related changes in regional myocardial right ventricular (RV) velocities are available. Color DMI was used in 32 healthy volunteers (aged 16-76 years) to derive regional velocities from basal, medial, and apical segments of the RV free wall in the apical 4-chamber view, and from distal segments as well as from the tricuspid annulus in the parasternal long-axis view. Both mitral annular and regional LV velocities (4-chamber, long-axis parasternal view) were also recorded and compared with corresponding RV regional velocities. The M-mode displacement of the cardiac base was measured. Corresponding RV and LV DMI data sets were compared. For longitudinal function, RV free wall systolic velocities were consistently higher than velocities recorded in corresponding LV segments (analysis of variance, P <.05). Older subjects (40-76 years; 13 men, 2 women) had lower RV long-axis regional velocities than younger subjects (16-39 years; 15 men, 2 women), but had higher short-axis RV systolic velocities. For diastolic velocities, a negative correlation between age and the ratio of regional early diastolic to late diastolic velocity was shown for all RV free wall segments (eg, basal segment: r = -0.63, P <.0001). The right ventricle has higher long-axis regional velocities, a greater excursion of its lateral atrioventricular valve ring, and reduced circumferential shortening velocities compared with the left ventricle. Right ventricular longitudinal shortening is dominant over short-axis function in healthy young subjects. Normal age-related changes of diastolic velocities for each segment of the normal RV free wall have been defined.
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            Doppler echocardiographic measurement of low velocity motion of the left ventricular posterior wall.

            A new noninvasive method using pulsed Doppler echocardiography was developed to assess left ventricular (LV) posterior wall motion dynamics. Seventeen normal subjects and 23 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization were prospectively studied. The sample volume was placed within the LV posterior wall endocardium just apical to the mitral valve sulcus using a posteriorly angulated low parasternal view. The wall filter was set at 100 Hz to record the low velocities of the LV posterior wall motion. The Doppler signal was morphologically similar to the rate of change of the LV posterior wall endocardium excursion obtained by a digitized M-mode echocardiogram, and showed 3 major waves: a systolic wave (S), an early diastolic wave (E) and a late diastolic wave (A). The peak velocities of LV posterior wall endocardium excursion were also determined by M-mode echocardiographic technique. We found a significant linear correlation between peak E-wave velocity and M-mode peak diastolic endocardial velocity (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001) and between peak S-wave velocity and M-mode peak systolic endocardial velocity (r = 0.81, p less than 0.001). M-mode peak systolic endocardial velocity showed an important overlap between control subjects and patients with normal and patients with abnormal LV posterior wall motion on the angiogram. In contrast, peak S-wave velocity was a better discriminator, and a peak S-wave velocity less than 7.5 cm/s was associated with abnormal LV posterior wall motion with an 83% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 95% accuracy. In patients with coronary artery disease but normal systolic LV posterior wall motion and normal global systolic LV function, peak S-wave velocity was not different when compared to control subjects. Peak E-wave velocity and E/A were significantly lower than in control subjects (p less than 0.01) and peak A-wave velocity was greater (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, these data suggest that pulsed Doppler echocardiography can be used for the direct analysis of LV posterior wall instantaneous low velocities and appears to be more informative than M-mode technique for systolic measurements. Thus, detection of abnormal LV posterior wall diastolic motion by pulsed Doppler echocardiography may, upon additional confirmation, be used as a new noninvasive method to gain insight into global LV diastolic performance.
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              Right ventricular function in patients with first inferior myocardial infarction: assessment by tricuspid annular motion and tricuspid annular velocity.

              Unlike left ventricular function, right ventricular (RV) function has not been widely studied after a myocardial infarction (MI). The current study describes RV function determined by tricuspid annular motion and tricuspid annular velocity after MI. Thirty-eight patients with a first acute inferior MI were prospectively compared with 33 patients with a first anterior MI and 24 age-matched healthy individuals. Association of RV infarction in inferior MI was defined as the presence of >/=1-mm ST-segment elevation at the right precordial lead, V(4)R, of the electrocardiograms. From the echocardiographic apical 4-chamber views, the systolic motion of the tricuspid annulus was recorded at the RV free wall with the use of 2-dimensional guided M-mode recordings. Peak systolic and peak early and late diastolic velocities of the tricuspid annulus at the RV free wall also were recorded with the use of pulsed-wave Doppler tissue imaging. The tricuspid annular motion was reduced in inferior MI compared with that in healthy individuals (20.5 and 25 mm, P <.001). The peak systolic velocity of the tricuspid annulus was significantly reduced in inferior MI compared with that in healthy individuals (12 vs 14.5 cm/s, P <.001) and patients with anterior MI (12 and 14.5 cm/s, P <.001). Patients with inferior MI were divided into 2 subgroups: those with and those without electrocardiographic signs of RV infarction. The tricuspid annular motion was significantly lower in patients with RV infarction than in patients without RV infarction (17 and 22.7 mm, P <.001). In addition, compared with patients without electrocardiographic signs of RV infarction, patients with RV infarction also had a significantly decreased peak systolic tricuspid annular velocity (13.3 and 10.3 cm/s, P <.001) and peak early diastolic velocity (13 and 8.2 cm/s, P <.001). These results suggest that tricuspid annular motion and tricuspid annular velocity can be used to assess RV function in association with inferior MI.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                June 2001
                28 June 2001
                : 95
                : 2
                : 101-104
                Echocardiography Laboratory, Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston and Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, Tex., USA.
                47354 Cardiology 2001;95:101–104
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 15, Pages: 4
                Diagnostic Cardiology


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