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      Ferrous sulfate, but not iron polymaltose complex, aggravates local and systemic inflammation and oxidative stress in dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in rats

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          Iron deficiency is common in inflammatory bowel disease, yet oral iron therapy may worsen the disease symptoms and increase systemic and local oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of oral ferrous sulfate and iron polymaltose complex on inflammatory and oxidative stress markers in colitic rats.

          Methods

          Animals were divided into four groups with ten animals each. Rats of three groups received dextran sodium sulfate to induce colitis and animals of two of these groups received 5 mg iron/kg of body weight a day, as ferrous sulfate or iron polymaltose complex, for 7 days. Gross colon anatomy, histology of colon and liver, stainings of L-ferritin, Prussian blue, hepcidin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, as well serum levels of liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, and iron markers, were assessed.

          Results

          Body weight, gross anatomy, crypt injury and inflammation scores, inflammatory parameters in liver and colon, as well as serum and liver hepcidin levels were not significantly different between colitic animals without iron treatment and colitic animals treated with iron polymaltose complex. In contrast, ferrous sulfate treatment caused significant worsening of these parameters. As opposed to ferrous sulfate, iron polymaltose complex caused less or no additional oxidative stress in the colon and liver compared to colitic animals without iron treatment.

          Conclusion

          Iron polymaltose complex had negligible effects on colonic tissue erosion, local or systemic oxidative stress, and local or systemic inflammation, even at high therapeutic doses, and may thus represent a valuable oral treatment of iron deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Non-transferrin bound iron: a key role in iron overload and iron toxicity.

          Besides transferrin iron, which represents the normal form of circulating iron, non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) has been identified in the plasma of patients with various pathological conditions in which transferrin saturation is significantly elevated. To show that: i) NTBI is present not only during chronic iron overload disorders (hemochromatosis, transfusional iron overload) but also in miscellaneous diseases which are not primarily iron overloaded conditions; ii) this iron species represents a potentially toxic iron form due to its high propensity to induce reactive oxygen species and is responsible for cellular damage not only at the plasma membrane level but also towards different intracellular organelles; iii) the NTBI concept may be expanded to include intracytosolic iron forms which are not linked to ferritin, the major storage protein which exerts, at the cellular level, the same type of protective effect towards the intracellular environment as transferrin in the plasma. Plasma NTBI and especially labile plasma iron determinations represent a new important biological tool since elimination of this toxic iron species is a major therapeutic goal. The NTBI approach represents an important mechanistic concept for explaining cellular iron excess and toxicity and provides new important biochemical diagnostic tools. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Transferrins: Molecular mechanisms of iron transport and disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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            Guidelines on the diagnosis and management of iron deficiency and anemia in inflammatory bowel diseases.

            Anemia is a common complication of inflammatory bowel diseases. An international working party has formed and developed guidelines for evaluation and treatment of anemia and iron deficiency that should serve practicing gastroenterologists. Within a total of 16 statements, recommendations are made regarding diagnostic measures to screen for iron- and other anemia-related deficiencies regarding the triggers for medical intervention, treatment goals, and appropriate therapies. Anemia is a common cause of hospitalization, prevents physicians from discharging hospitalized patients, and is one of the most frequent comorbid conditions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. It therefore needs appropriate attention and specific care.
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              Detection, evaluation, and management of iron-restricted erythropoiesis.

              Progress in our understanding of iron-restricted erythropoiesis has been made possible by important advances in defining the molecular mechanisms of iron homeostasis. The detection and diagnostic classification of iron-restricted erythropoiesis can be a challenging process for the clinician. Newer assays for markers of inflammation may allow more targeted management of the anemia in these conditions. The availability of new intravenous iron preparations provides new options for the treatment of iron-restricted erythropoiesis. This review summarizes recent advances regarding the detection, evaluation, and management of iron-restricted erythropoiesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2015
                07 May 2015
                : 9
                : 2585-2597
                Affiliations
                Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Hospital Alemán, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jorge E Toblli, Laboratory of Experimental Medicine, Hospital Alemán, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Avenue Pueyrredon 1640, 1118 Buenos Aires, Argentina, Tel +54 11 4827 7000 (ext 2785), Fax +54 11 4805 6087, Email jorgetoblli@ 123456fibertel.com.ar
                Article
                dddt-9-2585
                10.2147/DDDT.S81863
                4428360
                26005335
                © 2015 Toblli et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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