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      The bioprinting roadmap

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          Direct 3D Printing of Shear-Thinning Hydrogels into Self-Healing Hydrogels.

          Supramolecular hydrogels are used in the 3D printing of high-resolution, multi-material structures. The non-covalent bonds allow the extrusion of the inks into support gels to directly write structures continuously in 3D space. This material system supports the patterning of multiple inks, cells, and void spaces.
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            Three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic cell levitation.

            Cell culture is an essential tool in drug discovery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. Conventional tissue culture produces two-dimensional cell growth with gene expression, signalling and morphology that can be different from those found in vivo, and this compromises its clinical relevance. Here, we report a three-dimensional tissue culture based on magnetic levitation of cells in the presence of a hydrogel consisting of gold, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and filamentous bacteriophage. By spatially controlling the magnetic field, the geometry of the cell mass can be manipulated, and multicellular clustering of different cell types in co-culture can be achieved. Magnetically levitated human glioblastoma cells showed similar protein expression profiles to those observed in human tumour xenografts. Taken together, these results indicate that levitated three-dimensional culture with magnetized phage-based hydrogels more closely recapitulates in vivo protein expression and may be more feasible for long-term multicellular studies.
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              Controlling Shear Stress in 3D Bioprinting is a Key Factor to Balance Printing Resolution and Stem Cell Integrity.

              A microvalve-based bioprinting system for the manufacturing of high-resolution, multimaterial 3D-structures is reported. Applying a straightforward fluid-dynamics model, the shear stress at the nozzle site can precisely be controlled. Using this system, a broad study on how cell viability and proliferation potential are affected by different levels of shear stress is conducted. Complex, multimaterial 3D structures are printed with high resolution. This work pioneers the investigation of shear stress-induced cell damage in 3D bioprinting and might help to comprehend and improve the outcome of cell-printing studies in the future.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biofabrication
                Biofabrication
                IOP Publishing
                1758-5090
                April 01 2020
                February 06 2020
                : 12
                : 2
                : 022002
                Article
                10.1088/1758-5090/ab5158
                © 2020

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