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      Comorbidity of Depression with Physical Disorders: Research and Clinical Implications

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          Abstract

          Depression is prevalent in patients with physical disorders, particularly in those with severe disorders such as cancer, stroke, and acute coronary syndrome. Depression has an adverse impact on the courses of these diseases that includes poor quality of life, more functional impairments, and a higher mortality rate. Patients with physical disorders are at higher risk of depression. This is particularly true for patients with genetic and epigenetic predictors, environmental vulnerabilities such as past depression, higher disability, and stressful life events. Such patients should be monitored closely. To appropriately manage depression in these patients, comprehensive and integrative care that includes antidepressant treatment (with considerations for adverse effects and drug interactions), treatment of the physical disorder, and collaborative care that consists of disease education, cognitive reframing, and modification of coping style should be provided. The objective of the present review was to present and summarize the prevalence, risk factors, clinical correlates, current pathophysiological aspects including genetics, and treatments for depression comorbid with physical disorders. In particular, we tried to focus on severe physical disorders with high mortality rates, such as cancer, stroke, and acute coronary syndrome, which are highly comorbid with depression. This review will enhance our current understanding of the association between depression and serious medical conditions, which will allow clinicians to develop more advanced and personalized treatment options for these patients in routine clinical practice.

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          Most cited references 91

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          Lasting epigenetic influence of early-life adversity on the BDNF gene.

          Childhood maltreatment and early trauma leave lasting imprints on neural mechanisms of cognition and emotion. With a rat model of infant maltreatment by a caregiver, we investigated whether early-life adversity leaves lasting epigenetic marks at the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in the central nervous system. During the first postnatal week, we exposed infant rats to stressed caretakers that predominately displayed abusive behaviors. We then assessed DNA methylation patterns and gene expression throughout the life span as well as DNA methylation patterns in the next generation of infants. Early maltreatment produced persisting changes in methylation of BDNF DNA that caused altered BDNF gene expression in the adult prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, we observed altered BDNF DNA methylation in offspring of females that had previously experienced the maltreatment regimen. These results highlight an epigenetic molecular mechanism potentially underlying lifelong and transgenerational perpetuation of changes in gene expression and behavior incited by early abuse and neglect.
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            Depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer: five year observational cohort study.

            To examine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer in the five years after diagnosis. Observational cohort study. NHS breast clinic, London. 222 women with early breast cancer: 170 (77%) provided complete interview data up to either five years after diagnosis or recurrence. Prevalence of clinically important depression and anxiety (structured psychiatric interview with standardised diagnostic criteria) and clinical and patient risk factors, including stressful life experiences (Bedford College life events and difficulties schedule). Nearly 50% of the women with early breast cancer had depression, anxiety, or both in the year after diagnosis, 25% in the second, third, and fourth years, and 15% in the fifth year. Point prevalence was 33% at diagnosis, falling to 15% after one year. 45% of those with recurrence experienced depression, anxiety, or both within three months of the diagnosis. Previous psychological treatment predicted depression, anxiety, or both in the period around diagnosis (one month before diagnosis to four months after diagnosis). Longer term depression and anxiety, were associated with previous psychological treatment, lack of an intimate confiding relationship, younger age, and severely stressful non-cancer life experiences. Clinical factors were not associated with depression and anxiety, at any time. Lack of intimate confiding support also predicted more protracted episodes of depression and anxiety. Increased levels of depression, anxiety, or both in the first year after a diagnosis of early breast cancer highlight the need for dedicated service provision during this time. Psychological interventions for women with breast cancer who remain disease free should take account of the broader social context in which the cancer occurs, with a focus on improving social support.
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              Major depression in individuals with chronic medical disorders: prevalence, correlates and association with health resource utilization, lost productivity and functional disability.

               Leonard Egede (2007)
              The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and odds of major depression and the incremental effect of major depression on utilization, lost productivity and functional disability in individuals with common chronic medical disorders. Data on 30,801 adults from the 1999 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed. The 12-month prevalence and age/sex-adjusted odds of major depression were calculated for adults with hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The association between chronic condition status (with and without major depression) and utilization, lost productivity and functional disability was determined by controlling for covariates. The 12-month prevalence and age/sex-adjusted odds of major depression by chronic conditions were as follows: CHF, 7.9% [odds ratio (OR)=1.96]; HTN, 8.0% (OR=2.00); DM, 9.3% (OR=1.96); CAD, 9.3% (OR=2.30); CVA, 11.4% (OR=3.15); COPD, 15.4% (OR=3.21); ESRD, 17.0% (OR=3.56); any chronic condition, 8.8% (OR=2.61). Compared to adults without chronic conditions, those with chronic conditions plus major depression had greater odds of > or = 1 ambulatory visit [OR=1.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.28, 1.77]; > or = 1 emergency room visit (OR=1.94; 95% CI=1.55, 2.45); and > or = 1 day in bed due to illness (OR=1.60; 95% CI=1.28, 2.00); and functional disability (OR=2.48; 95% CI=1.96, 3.15). The 12-month prevalence and odds of major depression are high in individuals with chronic medical conditions, and major depression is associated with significant increases in utilization, lost productivity and functional disability.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Chonnam Med J
                Chonnam Med J
                CMJ
                Chonnam Medical Journal
                Chonnam National University Medical School
                2233-7385
                2233-7393
                April 2015
                14 April 2015
                : 51
                : 1
                : 8-18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.
                [2 ]Mental Health Clinic, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Jae-Min Kim. Department of Psychiatry, Chonnam National University Medical School, 160, Baekseo-ro, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-746, Korea. TEL: +82-62-220-6143, FAX: +82-62-225-2351, jmkim@ 123456chonnam.ac.kr
                Article
                10.4068/cmj.2015.51.1.8
                4406996
                © Chonnam Medical Journal, 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Ministry of Health and Welfare
                Award ID: HI12C0003
                Categories
                Review Article

                Medicine

                prognosis, depression, risk factors

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