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      Cytomegalovirus Colitis, Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis and Systemic Cytomegalovirus Infection: Common Features and Differences

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          Abstract

          Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous human herpes virus, which, after often asymptomatic primary infection, establishes a lifelong latent infection that can periodically be reactivated in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed carriers. Whereas the diagnostic approach in case of a suspicion of CMV reactivation is well defined, the indication for antiviral therapy can often only be made in the context of an extent of organ involvement, the immune status, and comorbidities of the patient. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and therapy of CMV reactivation with a focus on inflammatory bowel diseases and potentially different diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in Asia and the Western world.

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          Most cited references 60

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          Ulcerative colitis practice guidelines in adults: American College Of Gastroenterology, Practice Parameters Committee.

          Guidelines for clinical practice are aimed to indicate preferred approaches to medical problems as established by scientifically valid research. Double-blind placebo controlled studies are preferable, but compassionate-use reports and expert review articles are used in a thorough review of the literature conducted through Medline with the National Library of Medicine. When only data that will not withstand objective scrutiny are available, a recommendation is identified as a consensus of experts. Guidelines are applicable to all physicians who address the subject regardless of specialty training or interests and are aimed to indicate the preferable but not necessarily the only acceptable approach to a specific problem. Guidelines are intended to be flexible and must be distinguished from standards of care, which are inflexible and rarely violated. Given the wide range of specifics in any health-care problem, the physician must always choose the course best suited to the individual patient and the variables in existence at the moment of decision. Guidelines are developed under the auspices of the American College of Gastroenterology and its Practice Parameters Committee and approved by the board of trustees. Each has been intensely reviewed and revised by the Committee, other experts in the field, physicians who will use them, and specialists in the science of decision analysis. The recommendations of each guideline are therefore considered valid at the time of composition based on the data available. New developments in medical research and practice pertinent to each guideline will be reviewed at a time established and indicated at publication to assure continued validity. The recommendations made are based on the level of evidence found. Grade A recommendations imply that there is consistent level 1 evidence (randomized controlled trials), grade B indicates that the evidence would be level 2 or 3, which are cohort studies or case-control studies. Grade C recommendations are based on level 4 studies, meaning case series or poor-quality cohort studies, and grade D recommendations are based on level 5 evidence, meaning expert opinion.
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            Second European evidence-based consensus on the prevention, diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections in inflammatory bowel disease.

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              Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in the United States, 1988-1994.

              Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a leading cause of congenital illness and disability, including hearing loss and mental retardation. However, there are no nationwide estimates of CMV seroprevalence among pregnant women or the overall population of the United States. To determine CMV prevalence in a representative sample of the US population, we tested serum samples for CMV-specific immunoglobulin G from participants aged > or =6 years (n=21,639) in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994). The prevalence of CMV infection was 58.9% in individuals > or =6 years old. CMV seroprevalence increased gradually with age, from 36.3% in 6-11-year-olds to 90.8% in those aged > or =80 years. CMV seroprevalence differed by race and/or ethnicity as follows: 51.2% in non-Hispanic white persons, 75.8% in non-Hispanic black persons, and 81.7% in Mexican Americans. Racial and/or ethnic differences in CMV seroprevalence persisted when controlling for household income level, education, marital status, area of residence, census region, family size, country of birth, and type of medical insurance. Among women, racial and/or ethnic differences were especially significant; between ages 10-14 years and 20-24 years, seroprevalence increased 38% for non-Hispanic black persons, 7% for non-Hispanic white persons, and <1% for Mexican Americans. On the basis of these results, we estimate that each year in the United States approximately 340,000 non-Hispanic white persons, 130,000 non-Hispanic black persons, and 50,000 Mexican American women of childbearing age experience a primary CMV infection. Given the number of women at risk and the significance of congenital disease, development of programs for the prevention of CMV infection, such as vaccination or education, is of considerable public health importance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                IID
                IID
                10.1159/issn.2296-9365
                Inflammatory Intestinal Diseases
                S. Karger AG
                2296-9403
                2296-9365
                2016
                April 2016
                23 January 2016
                : 1
                : 1
                : 15-23
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Division of Endoscopy, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; bDivision of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N.C., USA
                Author notes
                *Hans Herfarth, MD, PhD, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Bioinformatics Bldg., CB No. 7080, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (USA), E-Mail hherf@med.unc.edu
                Article
                443198 PMC4883584 Inflamm Intest Dis 2016;1:15-23
                10.1159/000443198
                PMC4883584
                27243020
                © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 78, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Liver and Gut: Review

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