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      Tenebrio molitor Larvae Meal Affects the Cecal Microbiota of Growing Pigs

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          Abstract

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          Insect meal obtained from the mass-rearing of edible insects is increasingly considered as a potential alternative protein source in farm animal feeding, which can be produced with lower environmental impact than conventional protein sources, such as soybean meal—the currently main dietary protein source for monogastric farm animals. Apart from the necessity to overcome existing legal obstacles regarding the use of insect meal as feed for farm animals, a further prerequisite for the inclusion of insect meal in feeding rations for monogastric farm animals is that animals’ health is not impaired. Whether feeding insect meal to growing pigs alters gut microbiota composition, which is vital to both health and performance is currently unknown. The present study in growing pigs shows that dietary insect meal causes a characteristic shift in the cecal microbiota composition.

          Abstract

          The hypothesis tested was that dietary inclusion of insect meal (IM) causes an alteration in the cecal microbiota composition and its fermentation activity of growing pigs. Five-week-old male crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to three groups of 10 pigs each, and fed isonitrogenous diets either without (CON) or with 5% IM (IM5) or 10% IM (IM10) from Tenebrio molitor larvae for four weeks. The relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes was lower in group IM10 than in group CON ( p < 0.05), whereas the relative abundance of Firmicutes and the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes-ratio tended to be higher in groups IM10 and IM5 than in group CON ( p < 0.1). The relative abundance of the Proteobacteria tended to be higher in group IM10 than in groups CON and IM5 ( p < 0.1). The concentrations of the total short-chain fatty acids in the cecal digesta did not differ between the three groups, but the concentrations of the branched-chain fatty acids in the cecal digesta were higher in group IM5 and IM10 than in group CON ( p < 0.05). The present study shows for the first time that the replacement of soybean meal by Tenebrio molitor larvae meal causes a shift of the cecal microbial community and its fermentation activity in growing pigs.

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          The environmental sustainability of insects as food and feed. A review

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            Effects of amino acid-derived luminal metabolites on the colonic epithelium and physiopathological consequences.

            Depending on the amount of alimentary proteins, between 6 and 18 g nitrogenous material per day enter the large intestine lumen through the ileocaecal junction. This material is used as substrates by the flora resulting eventually in the presence of a complex mixture of metabolites including ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, short and branched-chain fatty acids, amines; phenolic, indolic and N-nitroso compounds. The beneficial versus deleterious effects of these compounds on the colonic epithelium depend on parameters such as their luminal concentrations, the duration of the colonic stasis, the detoxication capacity of epithelial cells in response to increase of metabolite concentrations, the cellular metabolic utilization of these metabolites as well as their effects on colonocyte intermediary and oxidative metabolism. Furthermore, the effects of metabolites on electrolyte movements through the colonic epithelium must as well be taken into consideration for such an evaluation. The situation is further complicated by the fact that other non-nitrogenous compounds are believed to interfere with these various phenomenons. Finally, the pathological consequences of the presence of excessive concentrations of these compounds are related to the short- and, most important, long-term effects of these compounds on the rapid colonic epithelium renewing and homeostasis.
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              Dissimilatory amino Acid metabolism in human colonic bacteria.

              The abilities of slurries of human faecal bacteria to ferment 20 different amino acids were investigated in batch culture incubations. Ammonia, short chain fatty acids, and in some cases, amines, were the principal products of dissimilatory metabolism. The types of SCFA produced were dependent on the chemical compositions of the test substrates. Thus, acetate and butyrate were formed from the acidic amino acid glutamate, while acetate and propionate predominated in aspartate fermentations. Breakdown of the basic amino acids lysine and arginine was rapid, and yielded butyrate and acetate, and ornithine and citrulline, respectively. The major products of histidine deamination were also acetate and butyrate. However, fermentation of sulphur-containing amino acids was slow and incomplete. Acetate, propionate and butyrate were formed from cysteine, whereas the main products of methionine metabolism were propionate and butyrate. The simple aliphatic amino acids alanine and glycine were fermented to acetate, propionate and butyrate, and acetate and methylamine, respectively. Branched-chain amino acids were slowly fermented by colonic bacteria, with the main acidic products being branched-chain fatty acids one carbon atom shorter than the parent amino acid. Low concentrations of amines were also detected in these fermentations. Aliphatic-hydroxy amino acids were rapidly deaminated by large intestinal microorganisms. Serine was primarily fermented to acetate and butyrate, while threonine was mainly metabolised to propionate. Proline was poorly utilized by intestinal bacteria, but hydroxyproline was efficiently fermented to acetate and propionate. The aromatic amino acids tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan were broken down to a range of phenolic and indolic compounds.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Animals (Basel)
                Animals (Basel)
                animals
                Animals : an Open Access Journal from MDPI
                MDPI
                2076-2615
                07 July 2020
                July 2020
                : 10
                : 7
                : 1151
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institute of Animal Nutrition and Nutrition Physiology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany; sandra.meyer@ 123456ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de (S.M.); denise.gessner@ 123456ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de (D.K.G.); Garima.Maheshwari@ 123456lcb.chemie.uni-giessen.de (G.M.); juliaroehrig@ 123456web.de (J.R.); theresa.friedhoff@ 123456ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de (T.F.); erika.most@ 123456ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de (E.M.); Klaus.Eder@ 123456ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de (K.E.)
                [2 ]Institute of Food Chemistry and Food Biotechnology, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 17, 35392 Giessen, Germany; holger.zorn@ 123456lcb.chemie.uni-giessen.de
                [3 ]Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Winchester Str. 2, 35394 Giessen, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: robert.ringseis@ 123456ernaehrung.uni-giessen.de ; Tel.: +49-641-9939231
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7934-1304
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1321-4820
                Article
                animals-10-01151
                10.3390/ani10071151
                7401588
                32645939
                c12efc9b-6dd1-4df0-ad37-cff6d25afe55
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 19 June 2020
                : 03 July 2020
                Categories
                Article

                bacteroidetes,chitin,fermentation,firmicutes,intestine,insect meal,microbiota,pigs

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