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      Resultados obstétricos y perinatales en pacientes con o sin analgesia obstétrica durante el trabajo de parto Translated title: Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in patients with or without obstetric analgesia during labor Translated title: Resultados obstétrico e perinatal em pacientes com ou sem analgesia obstétrica durante o trabalho de parto

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Objetivo: describir y comparar los resultados obstétricos y perinatales en las pacientes que recibieron analgesia obstétrica durante el trabajo de parto con los de quienes no la recibieron y determinar si dicha analgesia se asocia a resultados maternos o perinatales adversos. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, comparativo, retrospectivo de 502 pacientes sanas y con embarazo normal de las cuales 250 recibieron analgesia, atendidas entre enero y noviembre del 2014. Los grupos se compararon en cuanto a resultados maternos y perinatales. Resultados: predominaron las madres jóvenes, solteras y nulíparas; el parto fue vaginal en 86 % de los casos y por cesárea en 14 %. La analgesia obstétrica se asoció a mayor duración del segundo período del parto, parto instrumentado y cesárea por detención de la dilatación y por bradicardia fetal; sin embargo, no se relacionó con mayor incidencia de hemorragia posparto ni con resultados perinatales adversos como líquido amniótico teñido de meconio, Apgar menor de 5 al minuto o de 7 a los 5 minutos, necesidad de reanimación neonatal o de admisión a la UCI neonatal. Conclusión: la analgesia obstétrica aumenta la duración del expulsivo y puede elevar la tasa de cesáreas y de parto instrumentado; sin embargo, no se asocia a resultados maternos o perinatales adversos, por lo que su uso está justificado en el trabajo de parto.

          Translated abstract

          SUMMARY Objective: To describe and compare the obstetric and perinatal outcomes in patients with or without obstetric analgesia during labor, and to determine whether such analgesia is associated with adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes. Methodology: Comparative, retrospective, descriptive study, between January and November 2014, that included 502 healthy patients with normal pregnancies, out of which 250 received obstetric analgesia. The groups were compared as to maternal and perinatal outcomes. Results: Young, single and nulliparous mothers predominated; delivery was vaginal in 86 % of the cases, and by caesarean section in 14 %. Obstetric analgesia was associated with longer duration of the second stage of labor, instrumental delivery and cesarean section due to arrest of dilatation or fetal bradycardia; however, it was not related with higher incidence of postpartum hemorrhage or adverse perinatal outcomes such as meconium-stained amniotic fluid, Apgar under 5 at one minute or under 7 at 5 minutes, the need for neonatal resuscitation or for admission to NICU. Conclusion: Obstetric analgesia increases the duration of the second stage of labor and can increase the rate of caesarean sections and instrumental delivery, but it is not associated with adverse maternal or perinatal outcomes. Therefore, its use in labor is justified.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO Objetivo: descrever e comparar os resultados obstétricos e perinatais nas pacientes que receberam analgesia obstétrica durante o trabalho de parto com as de quem não a receberam e determinar se dita analgesia se associa aos resultados maternos ou perinatais adversos. Metodologia: estudo descritivo, comparativo, retrospectivo de 502 pacientes sanas e com gravidez normal das quais 250 receberam analgesia, atendidas entre janeiro e novembro de 2014. Os grupos se compararam em quanto a resultados maternos e perinatais. Resultados: predominaram as mães jovens, solteiras e nulíparas; o parto foi vaginal em 86 % dos casos e por cesárea em 14 %. A analgesia obstétrica se associou a maior duração do segundo período do parto, parto instrumentado e cesárea por detenção da dilatação e por bradicardia fetal; embora, não se relacionou com maior incidência de hemorragia pós-parto nem com resultados perinatais adversos como líquido amniótico tingimento de mecônio, Apgar menor de 5 ao minuto ou de 7 aos 5 minutos, necessidade de reanimação neonatal ou de admissão à UTI neonatal. Conclusão: a analgesia obstétrica aumenta a duração do expulsivo e pode elevar a taxa de cesáreas e de parto instrumentado; embora, não se associa a resultados maternos ou perinatais adversos, porque seu uso está justificado no trabalho de parto.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Prevalence and predictors of women's experience of psychological trauma during childbirth.

          The increased acceptance of the prevalence of trauma in human experience as well as its psychological consequences has led to revisions of diagnostic criteria for the disorder. The three purposes of this study were to examine the rates at which women experienced psychological trauma in childbirth, to explore possible causal factors, and to examine possible factors in the development of the disorder. One hundred and three women from childbirth education classes in the Atlanta metropolitan area completed a survey in late pregnancy and a follow-up interview approximately 4 weeks after the birth. The childbirth experience was reported as traumatic by 34 percent of participants. Two women (1.9%) developed all the symptoms needed to diagnose posttraumatic stress disorder, and 31 women (30.1%) were partially symptomatic. Regression analysis showed that antecedent factors (e.g., history of sexual trauma and social support) and event characteristics (e.g., pain in first stage of labor, feelings of powerlessness, expectations, medical intervention, and interaction with medical personnel) were significant predictors of perceptions of the childbirth as traumatic. The pain experienced during the birth, levels of social support, self-efficacy, internal locus of control, trait anxiety, and coping were significant predictors of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after the birth. These findings suggest several intervention points for health care practitioners, including careful prenatal screening of past trauma history, social support, and expectations about the birth; improved communication and pain management during the birth; and opportunities to discuss the birth postpartum.
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            Incidence of epidural hematoma, infection, and neurologic injury in obstetric patients with epidural analgesia/anesthesia.

            Of the 4 million annual births in the United States, 2.4 million involve epidural analgesia. Serious adverse events are rare but are important in young women. Robust estimates for the risk of harm are not available. Data for superficial and deep infections, hematoma, and transient and permanent neurologic injury were obtained from studies reporting adverse events with obstetric epidural analgesia, and incidence presented as individual risk for a woman, number of events per million women, and percentage incidence. A total of 1.37 million women received an epidural for childbirth, reported in 27 articles. Most information (85% of women) was in larger (> 10,000 women) studies published after 1990, with risk estimates as follows: epidural hematoma, 1 in 168,000; deep epidural infection, 1 in 145,000; persistent neurologic injury, 1 in 240,000; and transient neurologic injury, 1 in 6,700. Earlier and smaller studies produced significantly higher risk estimates for transient neurologic injury plus injury of unknown duration.
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              The effects of epidural analgesia on labor, maternal, and neonatal outcomes: a systematic review.

              Mothers given an epidural rather than parenteral opioid labor analgesia report less pain and are more satisfied with their pain relief. Analgesic method does not affect fetal oxygenation, neonatal pH, or 5-minute Apgar scores; however, neonates whose mothers received parenteral opioids require naloxone and have low 1-minute Apgar scores more frequently than do neonates whose mothers received epidural analgesia. Epidural labor analgesia does not affect the incidence of cesarean delivery, instrumented vaginal delivery for dystocia, or new-onset long-term back pain. Epidural analgesia is associated with longer second-stage labor, more frequent oxytocin augmentation, hypotension, and maternal fever (particularly among women who shiver) but not with longer first-stage labor. Analgesic method does not affect lactation success. Epidural use and urinary incontinence are associated immediately postpartum but not at 3 or 12 months. The mechanisms of these unintended effects need to be determined to improve epidural labor analgesia.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                iat
                Iatreia
                Iatreia
                Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia )
                0121-0793
                July 2016
                : 29
                : 3
                : 263-269
                Affiliations
                Caldas orgnameUniversidad de Caldas Colombia
                orgnameFundación Universitaria Autónoma de las Américas Colombia
                Caldas orgnameUniversidad de Caldas Colombia danyp110@ 123456hotmail.com
                Article
                S0121-07932016000300263
                10.17533/udea.iatreia.v29n3a01

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

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