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      Three Novel MEN1 Variants in AIP -Negative Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma Patients

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          Abstract

          Objectives: Pituitary adenomas (PAs) may rarely occur in well-defined hereditary conditions, like multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome and familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) associated with germline mutations in MEN1 and AIP, respectively. This study aimed to assess MEN1 genetic abnormalities in AIP mutation-negative FIPA patients, not associated with MEN1 components. Methods: Among 20 patients evaluated in 13 FIPA families, 12 were previously reported as AIP mutation-negative. In this study, 6 new families with 8 patients were recruited. All patients were subjected to multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect copy number variations in AIP and MEN1, and AIP sequencing was performed in additional patients. AIP mutation-negative patients were subjected to MEN1 sequencing. Results: Our cohort revealed only 3 novel heterozygous MEN1 variants including c.1846T>A p.(*616Argext*21), rs778272737:T>C, and rs972128957:C>T in 2 families, with patients diagnosed with Cushing disease, nonfunction al adenoma, and acromegaly, respectively. Among them, c.1846T>A p. (*616Argext*21) is a stop codon read-through, whereas the others are 3′UTR variations. MEN1 variation frequency was detected as 15%. Conclusions: MEN1 alterations can be of significance in FIPA patients and screening could be offered to AIP mutation-negative patients without MEN1 features. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of MEN1 in FIPA patients.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Acromegaly: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline.

          The aim was to formulate clinical practice guidelines for acromegaly.
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            Guidelines for diagnosis and therapy of MEN type 1 and type 2.

            This is a consensus statement from an international group, mostly of clinical endocrinologists. MEN1 and MEN2 are hereditary cancer syndromes. The commonest tumors secrete PTH or gastrin in MEN1, and calcitonin or catecholamines in MEN2. Management strategies improved after the discoveries of their genes. MEN1 has no clear syndromic variants. Tumor monitoring in MEN1 carriers includes biochemical tests yearly and imaging tests less often. Neck surgery includes subtotal or total parathyroidectomy, parathyroid cryopreservation, and thymectomy. Proton pump inhibitors or somatostatin analogs are the main management for oversecretion of entero-pancreatic hormones, except insulin. The roles for surgery of most entero-pancreatic tumors present several controversies: exclusion of most operations on gastrinomas and indications for surgery on other tumors. Each MEN1 family probably has an inactivating MEN1 germline mutation. Testing for a germline MEN1 mutation gives useful information, but rarely mandates an intervention. The most distinctive MEN2 variants are MEN2A, MEN2B, and familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). They vary in aggressiveness of MTC and spectrum of disturbed organs. Mortality in MEN2 is greater from MTC than from pheochromocytoma. Thyroidectomy, during childhood if possible, is the goal in all MEN2 carriers to prevent or cure MTC. Each MEN2 index case probably has an activating germline RET mutation. RET testing has replaced calcitonin testing to diagnose the MEN2 carrier state. The specific RET codon mutation correlates with the MEN2 syndromic variant, the age of onset of MTC, and the aggressiveness of MTC; consequently, that mutation should guide major management decisions, such as whether and when to perform thyroidectomy.
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              Positional cloning of the gene for multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1.

              Multiple endocrine neoplasia-type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant familial cancer syndrome characterized by tumors in parathyroids, enteropancreatic endocrine tissues, and the anterior pituitary. DNA sequencing from a previously identified minimal interval on chromosome 11q13 identified several candidate genes, one of which contained 12 different frameshift, nonsense, missense, and in-frame deletion mutations in 14 probands from 15 families. The MEN1 gene contains 10 exons and encodes a ubiquitously expressed 2.8-kilobase transcript. The predicted 610-amino acid protein product, termed menin, exhibits no apparent similarities to any previously known proteins. The identification of MEN1 will enable improved understanding of the mechanism of endocrine tumorigenesis and should facilitate early diagnosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PAT
                Pathobiology
                10.1159/issn.1015-2008
                Pathobiology
                S. Karger AG
                1015-2008
                1423-0291
                2019
                June 2019
                10 January 2019
                : 86
                : 2-3
                : 128-134
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
                bDepartment of Genetics, Aziz Sancar Institute of Experimental Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
                Author notes
                *Feyza Nur Tuncer, Department of Genetics, Aziz Sancar Institute of, Experimental Medicine, Istanbul University, Vakif Gureba Caddesi, TR–34093 Capa/Istanbul (Turkey), E-Mail ftuncer@istanbul.edu.tr
                Article
                495252 Pathobiology 2019;86:128–134
                10.1159/000495252
                30630164
                © 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 7
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/495252
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