13 April 2018
Penicillium and Talaromyces species have a worldwide distribution and are isolated from various materials and hosts, including insects and their substrates. The aim of this study was to characterize the Penicillium and Talaromyces species obtained during a survey of honey, pollen and the inside of nests of Melipona scutellaris. A total of 100 isolates were obtained during the survey and 82% of those strains belonged to Penicillium and 18% to Talaromyces. Identification of these isolates was performed based on phenotypic characters and β-tubulin and ITS sequencing. Twenty-one species were identified in Penicillium and six in Talaromyces, including seven new species. These new species were studied in detail using a polyphasic approach combining phenotypic, molecular and extrolite data. The four new Penicillium species belong to sections Sclerotiora ( Penicillium fernandesiae sp. nov., Penicillium mellis sp. nov., Penicillium meliponae sp. nov.) and Gracilenta ( Penicillium apimei sp. nov.) and the three new Talaromyces species to sections Helici ( Talaromyces pigmentosus sp. nov.), Talaromyces ( Talaromyces mycothecae sp. nov.) and Trachyspermi ( Talaromyces brasiliensis sp. nov.). The invalidly described species Penicillium echinulonalgiovense sp. nov. was also isolated during the survey and this species is validated here.