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      Comparison of the in vitro anthelmintic effects of Acacia nilotica and Acacia raddiana Translated title: Comparaison des effets anthelminthiques in vitro d' Acacia nilotica et Acacia raddiana

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          Abstract

          Gastrointestinal nematodes are a major threat to small ruminant rearing in the Sahel area, where farmers traditionally use bioactive plants to control these worms, including Acacia nilotica and Acacia raddiana. The main aim of this study was to screen the potential anthelmintic properties of aqueous and acetone extracts of leaves of these two plants based on three in vitro assays: (1) the egg hatch inhibition assay (EHA); (2) the larvae exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) using Haemonchus contortus as a model; and (3) an adult mortality test (AMT) applied on Caenorhabditis elegans. For the EHA, only A. raddiana was effective with IC 50 = 1.58 mg/mL for aqueous extract, and IC 50 = 0.58 mg/mL for acetonic extract. For the LEIA, all extracts inhibited the exsheathment of larvae compared to the controls, and the aqueous extract of A. nilotica was more larvicidal with IC 50 = 0.195 mg/mL. In general, all responses to the substances were dose-dependent and were significantly different from the control group ( p < 0.05). For the AMT, the extracts of the two Acacia species were effective but A. raddiana showed greater efficacy with 100% mortality at 2.5 mg/mL and LC 50 = 0.84 mg/mL (acetonic extract). The addition of polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP) to the extracts suggested that tannins were responsible for blocking egg eclosion and inducing adult mortality but were not responsible for exsheathment inhibition. These results suggest that the leaves of these Acacia species possess ovicidal and larvicidal activities in vitro against H. contortus, and adulticidal effects against C. elegans.

          Translated abstract

          Les nématodes gastro-intestinaux demeurent une menace majeure de l'élevage des petits ruminants en zone sahélienne, où les éleveurs utilisent traditionnellement des plantes bioactives pour maîtriser ces parasites, notamment Acacia nilotica et Acacia raddiana. L'objectif de ce travail était de vérifier l'efficacité anthelminthique d'extraits aqueux et acétoniques de feuilles de ces deux plantes sur la base de 3 tests in vitro : 1) l'inhibition de l'éclosion des œufs (EHA), 2) l'inhibition du dégainement des larves (LEA) appliquée au modèle Haemonchus contortus et 3) la mortalité des Caenorhabditis elegans adultes (AMT). Pour EHA, seul A. raddiana a été efficace avec IC 50 = 1,58 mg/mL pour l'extrait aqueux et IC 50 = 0,58 mg/mL pour l'extrait acétonique. Pour LEA, tous les extraits ont inhibé le dégainement des larves par rapport aux témoins et l'extrait aqueux d' A. nilotica a été plus larvicide avec un IC 50 = 0,195 mg/mL. De façon générale, toutes les concentrations agissent de façon dose-dépendante et sont significativement différentes du groupe témoin (P < 0,05). Pour AMT, les extraits des deux Acacia ont été efficaces mais A. raddiana a été plus efficace avec 100% de mortalité à 2,5 mg/mL avec une DL 50 = 0,84 mg/mL (extrait acétonique). L'addition de polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) aux extraits a montré que les tannins seraient responsables de l'inhibition de l'éclosion des œufs et de la mortalité chez les vers adultes, mais ne seraient pas responsables de l'inhibition du dégainement des larves. Ces résultats suggèrent que les feuilles de ces deux Acacia possèdent des activités ovicides et larvicides in vitro contre H. contortus et des effets sur les C. elegans adultes.

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          Most cited references 52

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          The effect of condensed tannins on the nutrition and health of ruminants fed fresh temperate forages: a review

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            The effects of tannin-rich plants on parasitic nematodes in ruminants.

            Apart from the obvious role of plants in herbivore nutrition, they are also a rich source of bioactive products that can operate either to the benefit or the detriment of grazing animals. Here, we review the available evidence for the potential beneficial effects that plant-derived bioactive substances can have on gastrointestinal parasites. Tannin-rich plants have attracted most attention for their effect on internal nematodes in ruminants. These plants could act through direct antiparasitic activity but might also act indirectly by increasing host resistance. The effects vary with the species of plant, parasite and host. More research is required to understand better the mechanisms of action, and therefore make more pertinent use of these bioactive plants in livestock systems.
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              Alternative or improved methods to limit gastro-intestinal parasitism in grazing sheep and goats

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2017
                27 November 2017
                : 24
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2017/01 )
                Affiliations
                [a ] Laboratoire de Biologie et Santé Animales-DPA/INERA, 04 BP 8645 Ouagadougou 04 Burkina Faso
                [b ] Université de Ouagadougou / UFR-SVT, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03 Burkina Faso
                [c ] Instituto de Zootecnia (SAA, APTA), Rua Heitor Penteado 56, Nova Odessa, SP, cep 13460-000 Brazil
                [d ] Universidade Federal do Maranhão − UFMA, Campus do Bacanga CEP 65080-805 São Luís- MA Brazil
                [e ] Université Nazi Boni, Bobo-Dioulasso, 01 BP 3770 Ouagadougou 01 Burkina Faso
                [f ] Universidade de São Paulo, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, NAPTSA, CP 96, CEP 13.400-970, Piracicaba, SP Brazil
                [g ] UMR1213 Herbivores, INRA − Clermont-Ferrand, Vetagro Sup, 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle France
                [h ] UMR IHAP 1225 INRA/ENVT, 23 Chemin des Capelles, 31076 Toulouse Cedex France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: ade1_bf@ 123456yahoo.fr
                Article
                parasite170058 10.1051/parasite/2017044
                10.1051/parasite/2017044
                5703060
                29173278
                © G. Zabré et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, Equations: 0, References: 70, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Article

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