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      Étude comparative de l’innocuité de deux vaccins commerciaux contre la babésiose canine provoquée par Babesia canis Translated title: Comparative safety study of two commercialised vaccines against canine babesiosis induced by Babesia canis

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          L’innocuité de deux vaccins commercialisés en France contre la babésiose canine – Nobivac Piro ® (NP) et Pirodog ® (P) – a été étudiée. Leur impact local, général et biochimique a été comparé, en conditions expérimentales maîtrisées, sur un groupe témoin (T) et deux groupes vaccinés deux fois à 21 jours d’intervalle. Tous les chiens ont présenté une réaction locale modérée. Cependant, le groupe NP a présenté une réaction locale significativement plus intense que le groupe P. Ceci est objectivé par les paramètres cliniques et biologiques. Aucune différence statistiquement significative n’est mise en évidence entre les évolutions des groupes P et T.

          Translated abstract

          The safety of two vaccines available on the French market against canine babesiosis – Nobivac Piro ® (NP) and Pirodog ® (P) – have been evaluated. Their local, general and biochemical impacts have been compared in a controlled experimental study. Three groups were used: a control group (T) and two groups vaccinated twice at 21 days interval. All dogs presented moderate local reaction. However, either clinical and biological parameters showed that the NP group presented a significantly more intense reaction at the injection site compared to the P group. No statistical difference has been revealed between the groups P and T evolutions.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe.

          Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, thrombocytic anaplasmosis, and leishmaniosis. Except for the last, these diseases are transmitted by ticks. Both the distribution and abundance of the three main tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus are changing. The conditions for such changes involve primarily human factors, such as travel with pets, changes in human habitats, social and leisure activities, but climate changes also have a direct impact on arthropod vectors (abundance, geographical distribution, and vectorial capacity). Besides the most known diseases, attention should be kept on tick-borne encephalitis, which seems to be increasing in western Europe, as well as flea-borne diseases like the flea-transmitted rickettsiosis. Here, after consideration of the main reasons for changes in tick vector ecology, an overview of each "emerging" vector-borne diseases of pets is presented.
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            Advances in saponin-based adjuvants.

             Xiang Sun,  YONG XIE,  Ping Ye (2009)
            Saponins are natural glycosides of steroid or triterpene which exhibited many different biological and pharmacological activities. Notably, saponins can also activate the mammalian immune system, which have led to significant interest in their potential as vaccine adjuvants. The most widely used saponin-based adjuvants are Quil A and its derivatives QS-21, isolated from the bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina, which have been evaluated in numerous clinical trials. Their unique capacity to stimulate both the Th1 immune response and the production of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) against exogenous antigens makes them ideal for use in subunit vaccines and vaccines directed against intracellular pathogens as well as for therapeutic cancer vaccines. However, Quillaja saponins have serious drawbacks such as high toxicity, undesirable haemolytic effect and instability in aqueous phase, which limits their use as adjuvant in vaccination. It has driven much research for saponin-based adjuvant from other kinds of natural products. This review will summarize the current advances concerning adjuvant effects of different kinds of saponins. The structure-activity relationship of saponin adjuvants will also be discussed in the light of recent findings. It is hoped that the information collated here will provide the reader with information regarding the adjuvant potential applications of saponins and stimulate further research into these compounds.
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              C-reactive protein concentration in dogs with various diseases.

              To investigate the clinical utility of C-reactive protein (CRP) determination in dogs, its plasma concentration was measured by a laser nephelometric method in 928 dogs with various diseases, and was compared with other inflammatory parameters. CRP concentration was elevated in various inflammatory diseases, this was most frequently observed in cases with neoplastic and immune-mediated diseases. All cases of pyometra, panniculitis, acute pancreatitis, polyarthritis, and hemangiosarcoma showed significantly elevated CRP concentrations. On the other hand, the CRP concentration was elevated only in few cases of neurological diseases such as epilepsy, meningoencephalitis, and hydrocephalus and endocrine diseases such as hypothyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, and diabetes mellitus. Only a weak correlation was observed between the CRP concentration and white blood cell (WBC) counts (r=0.44) but no correlation with band neutrophil counts. There was no correlation between the CRP and albumin concentrations, but a weak negative correlation (r=-0.40) when excluding chronic intestinal diseases and nephrotic syndrome, which can cause protein loss. Thus, CRP can be useful to detect inflammations that cannot be detected by WBC and, or band neutrophil counts, suggesting that the examination of CRP concentration is essential as routine diagnostic test.

                Author and article information

                EDP Sciences
                November 2011
                15 November 2011
                : 18
                : 4 ( publisher-idID: parasite/2011/04 )
                : 311-318
                [1 ] École Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort Maisons-Alfort France
                [2 ] Merial S.A.S. Lyon France
                [3 ] Laboratoire Vébiotel Arcueil France
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondance: Ludovic Freyburger. Tél. : 33 (0)4 78 87 56 61. E-mail: ludovic.freyburger@ 123456vetagro-sup.fr
                parasite2011184p311 10.1051/parasite/2011184311
                © PRINCEPS Editions, Paris, 2011

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 20, Pages: 8
                Original Contribution


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