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      Facial nerve paralysis and partial brachial plexopathy after epidural blood patch: a case report and review of the literature

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          Abstract

          We report a complication related to epidural analgesia for delivery in a 24- year-old woman who was admitted with mild pre-eclampsia and for induction of labor. At the first postpartum day she developed a postdural puncture headache, which was unresponsive to conservative measures. On the fifth day an epidural blood patch was done, and her headache subsided. Sixteen hours later she developed paralysis of the right facial nerve, which was treated with prednisone. Seven days later she complained of pain in the left arm and the posterior region of the shoulder. She was later admitted and diagnosed with partial brachial plexopathy.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Post-dural puncture headache: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.

          Spinal anaesthesia developed in the late 1800s with the work of Wynter, Quincke and Corning. However, it was the German surgeon, Karl August Bier in 1898, who probably gave the first spinal anaesthetic. Bier also gained first-hand experience of the disabling headache related to dural puncture. He correctly surmised that the headache was related to excessive loss of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In the last 50 yr, the development of fine-gauge spinal needles and needle tip modification, has enabled a significant reduction in the incidence of post-dural puncture headache. Though it is clear that reducing the size of the dural perforation reduces the loss of CSF, there are many areas regarding the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of post-dural puncture headache that remain contentious. How does the microscopic pattern of collagen alignment in the spinal dura affect the dimensions of the dural perforation? How do needle design, size and orientation influence leakage of CSF through the dural perforation? Can pharmacological methods reduce the symptoms of post-dural puncture headache? By which mechanism does the epidural blood patch cure headache? Is there a role for the prophylactic epidural blood patch? Do epidural saline, dextran, opioids and tissue glues reduce the rate of CSF loss? This review considers these contentious aspects of post-dural puncture headache.
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            PDPH is a common complication of neuraxial blockade in parturients: a meta-analysis of obstetrical studies.

            Postdural puncture headache (PDPH) is an iatrogenic complication of neuraxial blockade. We systematically reviewed the literature on parturients to determine the frequency, onset, and duration of PDPH. Citations on PDPH in the obstetrical population were identified by computerized searches, citation review, and hand searches of abstracts and conference proceedings. Citations were included if they contained extractable data on frequency, onset, or duration of PDPH. Using meta-analysis, we calculated pooled estimates of the frequency of accidental dural puncture for epidural needles and pooled estimates of the frequencies of PDPH for epidural and spinal needles. Parturients have approximately a 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5% to 1.5%) risk of accidental dural puncture with epidural insertion. Of these, approximately half (52.1%; 95% CI, 51.4% to 52.8%) will result in PDPH. The risk of PDPH from spinal needles diminishes with small diameter, atraumatic needles, but is still appreciable (Whitacre 27-gauge needle 1.7%; 95% CI, 1.6% to 1.8%). PDPH occurs as early as one day and as late as seven days after dural puncture and lasts 12 hr to seven days. PDPH is a common complication for parturients undergoing neuraxial blockade.
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              Post-dural puncture headache: part I diagnosis, epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology.

              Post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a frequent complication of dural puncture whether performed for diagnostic purposes or accidentally, as a complication of anesthesia. Because both procedures are common, clinicians interested in headache should be familiar with this entity. The differential diagnosis of PDPH is broad and includes other complications of dural puncture as well as headaches attributable to the condition which lead to the procedure. The patterns of development of PDPH depend on a number of procedure- and nonprocedure-related risk factors. Knowledge of procedure-related factors supports interventions designed to reduce the incidence of PDPH. Finally, despite best preventive efforts, PDPH may still occur and be associated with significant morbidity. Therefore, it is important to know the management and prognosis of this disorder. In this review, we will highlight diagnosis and clinical characteristics of PDPH, differential diagnosis, frequency, and risk factors as well as pathophysiology of PDPH.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2011
                02 February 2011
                : 4
                : 39-45
                Affiliations
                Department of Neurology, Ziv Medical Center, Zfat, Israel
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Radi Shahien, Department of Neurology, Ziv Medical Center, Zfat, 13100, Israel, Tel +972 4 6828927/8, Fax +972 4 6828648, Email shahien.r@ 123456ziv.health.gov.il
                Article
                jpr-4-039
                10.2147/JPR.S15314
                3048582
                21386953
                © 2011 Shahien and Bowirrat, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Case Report

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