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      Content of industrially produced trans fatty acids in breast milk: An observational study

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          Abstract

          Breast milk may contain industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs), which can affect the content of essential fatty acids (EFAs). This could have significant implications for the child's development. The fatty acids present in breast milk can be modified by adjusting the mother's diet. The objective of this study was to determine the content of industrially produced TFAs present in colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk produced by mothers between 18 and 45 years of age in the state of Querétaro, Mexico, based on a longitudinal observational study. The TFA content in the breast milk of 33 lactating women was analyzed using gas chromatography. The mothers’ consumption of TFAs was also estimated by analyzing a log prepared through 24‐hr dietary recall (24HR) obtained in each period. The TFA content in the mothers’ diet was similar across the colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk phases: 1.64 ± 1.25 g, 1.39 ± 1.01, and 1.66 ± 1.13 g, respectively. The total TFA content was 1.529% ± 1.648% for colostrum; 0.748% ± 1.033% for transitional milk and 0.945% ± 1.368% for mature milk. Elaidic acid was the TFA in the highest concentration in all three types of milk. No correlation was found between the content of industrially produced TFAs in breast milk and the anthropometric measurements of the mother or between the estimated consumption of TFAs and the content of TFAs in breast milk. Elaidic acid and total content of TFAs were negatively correlated ( p < .05) with the content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (0.394 ± 0.247) ( R = −0.382) in colostrum. The concentration of TFAs was found to correlate with the composition of EFAs in milk.

          Abstract

          Breast milk may contain industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFAs). The objective of this study was to determine the content of industrially produced TFAs in colostrum, transitional, and mature milk. Elaidic acid was the TFA with the highest concentration in all three types of milk. TFA concentrations were significantly higher in colostrum than in transitional or mature milk. Elaidic acid and total TFA content showed an inverse correlation with DHA in colostrum. The concentration of TFAs correlates with the presence of EFAs in human milk.

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          Intake of saturated and trans unsaturated fatty acids and risk of all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

          Objective To systematically review associations between intake of saturated fat and trans unsaturated fat and all cause mortality, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated mortality, ischemic stroke, and type 2 diabetes. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and CINAHL from inception to 1 May 2015, supplemented by bibliographies of retrieved articles and previous reviews. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Observational studies reporting associations of saturated fat and/or trans unsaturated fat (total, industrially manufactured, or from ruminant animals) with all cause mortality, CHD/CVD mortality, total CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes. Data extraction and synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study risks of bias. Multivariable relative risks were pooled. Heterogeneity was assessed and quantified. Potential publication bias was assessed and subgroup analyses were undertaken. The GRADE approach was used to evaluate quality of evidence and certainty of conclusions. Results For saturated fat, three to 12 prospective cohort studies for each association were pooled (five to 17 comparisons with 90 501-339 090 participants). Saturated fat intake was not associated with all cause mortality (relative risk 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.09), CVD mortality (0.97, 0.84 to 1.12), total CHD (1.06, 0.95 to 1.17), ischemic stroke (1.02, 0.90 to 1.15), or type 2 diabetes (0.95, 0.88 to 1.03). There was no convincing lack of association between saturated fat and CHD mortality (1.15, 0.97 to 1.36; P=0.10). For trans fats, one to six prospective cohort studies for each association were pooled (two to seven comparisons with 12 942-230 135 participants). Total trans fat intake was associated with all cause mortality (1.34, 1.16 to 1.56), CHD mortality (1.28, 1.09 to 1.50), and total CHD (1.21, 1.10 to 1.33) but not ischemic stroke (1.07, 0.88 to 1.28) or type 2 diabetes (1.10, 0.95 to 1.27). Industrial, but not ruminant, trans fats were associated with CHD mortality (1.18 (1.04 to 1.33) v 1.01 (0.71 to 1.43)) and CHD (1.42 (1.05 to 1.92) v 0.93 (0.73 to 1.18)). Ruminant trans-palmitoleic acid was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (0.58, 0.46 to 0.74). The certainty of associations between saturated fat and all outcomes was “very low.” The certainty of associations of trans fat with CHD outcomes was “moderate” and “very low” to “low” for other associations. Conclusions Saturated fats are not associated with all cause mortality, CVD, CHD, ischemic stroke, or type 2 diabetes, but the evidence is heterogeneous with methodological limitations. Trans fats are associated with all cause mortality, total CHD, and CHD mortality, probably because of higher levels of intake of industrial trans fats than ruminant trans fats. Dietary guidelines must carefully consider the health effects of recommendations for alternative macronutrients to replace trans fats and saturated fats.
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            Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity.

            Breast milk is the perfect nutrition for infants, a result of millions of years of evolution, finely attuning it to the requirements of the infant. Breast milk contains many complex proteins, lipids and carbohydrates, the concentrations of which alter dramatically over a single feed, as well as over lactation, to reflect the infant's needs. In addition to providing a source of nutrition for infants, breast milk contains a myriad of biologically active components. These molecules possess diverse roles, both guiding the development of the infants immune system and intestinal microbiota. Orchestrating the development of the microbiota are the human milk oligosaccharides, the synthesis of which are determined by the maternal genotype. In this review, we discuss the composition of breast milk and the factors that affect it during the course of breast feeding. Understanding the components of breast milk and their functions will allow for the improvement of clinical practices, infant feeding and our understanding of immune responses to infection and vaccination in infants.
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              Healthy percentage body fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index.

              Although international interest in classifying subject health status according to adiposity is increasing, no accepted published ranges of percentage body fat currently exist. Empirically identified limits, population percentiles, and z scores have all been suggested as means of setting percentage body fat guidelines, although each has major limitations. The aim of this study was to examine a potential new approach for developing percentage body fat ranges. The approach taken was to link healthy body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) guidelines established by the National Institutes of Health and the World Health Organization with predicted percentage body fat. Body fat was measured in subjects from 3 ethnic groups (white, African American, and Asian) who were screened and evaluated at 3 universities [Cambridge (United Kingdom), Columbia (United States), and Jikei (Japan)] with use of reference body-composition methods [4-compartment model (4C) at 2 laboratories and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at all 3 laboratories]. Percentage body fat prediction equations were developed based on BMI and other independent variables. A convenient sample of 1626 adults with BMIs or =25), and obesity (> or =30). This proposed approach and initial findings provide the groundwork and stimulus for establishing international healthy body fat ranges.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                karina.delatorre@uaq.edu.mx
                Journal
                Food Sci Nutr
                Food Sci Nutr
                10.1002/(ISSN)2048-7177
                FSN3
                Food Science & Nutrition
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                2048-7177
                05 April 2022
                August 2022
                : 10
                : 8 ( doiID: 10.1002/fsn3.v10.8 )
                : 2568-2581
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Facultad de Ciencias Naturales Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro Querétaro México
                [ 2 ] Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada (CICATA) Instituto Politécnico Nacional Querétaro México
                [ 3 ] Banco de Leche, Secretaría de Salud del Estado de Querétaro (SESEQ) Querétaro México
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Karina de la Torre‐Carbot, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro, Av. de las Ciencias S/N, Juriquilla, Querétaro, Qro. CP 76320, México.

                Email: karina.delatorre@ 123456uaq.edu.mx

                Article
                FSN32862
                10.1002/fsn3.2862
                9361450
                35959266
                c15f2709-a62c-40f9-88b5-4aabb56bfeb1
                © 2022 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, Pages: 14, Words: 10594
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro , doi 10.13039/100008989;
                Award ID: FOFI‐2015‐UAQ
                Award ID: FOPER 2015‐UAQ
                Categories
                Original Research
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                August 2022
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.1.7 mode:remove_FC converted:09.08.2022

                breast milk,elaidic acid,essential fatty acids,industrially produced trans fatty acids

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